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Experimental Gerontology

Johanna Prossegger, Daniela Huber, Carina Grafetstätter, Christina Pichler, Renate Weisböck-Erdheim, Bernhard Iglseder, Gerti Wewerka, Arnulf Hartl
BACKGROUND: Population aging is one of the greatest socio-economic challenges of the 21st century, as aging is a well-known risk factor for the development of chronic diseases and functional disabilities. A sedentary life-style promotes the progression of chronic diseases and impaired mobility in older people. Therefore, physical activity is essential for healthy aging. The optimal exercise program for older persons, which covers fall prevention as well as endurance and strength, still remains unclear...
April 17, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
An-Kang Lyu, Shi-Yu Zhu, Jin-Liang Chen, Yu-Xing Zhao, Die Pu, Cheng Luo, Qiong Lyu, Zhen Fan, Yue Sun, Jing Wu, Ke-Xiang Zhao, Qian Xiao
Sarcopenia is an age-related syndrome characterized by a gradual loss of muscle mass and function, but its pathophysiological mechanism remains unclear. Skeletal muscle extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling is an important pathological change in sarcopenia, and fibrosis is the most obvious manifestation of this change. We found that the expression of the immunoreceptor Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is significantly increased in skeletal muscle in aged mice and is positively related to muscle fibrosis. Moreover, in previous reports, the longevity gene Sirt1 was reported to attenuate ECM deposition and improve muscle function...
April 16, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
M Orth, J Baudach, C Scheuer, D Osche, N T Veith, B J Braun, M F Rollmann, S C Herath, T Pohlemann, M D Menger, T Histing
Fracture healing in the elderly is associated with a declined healing potential caused by multiple factors including a delay of vascularization. Erythropoietin (EPO) has been demonstrated to improve vascularization and fracture healing in adult mice. We, therefore, hypothesized that EPO in aged mice also improves fracture healing. For this purpose, EPO was given daily in a femoral fracture model in aged mice and compared to vehicle-treated controls using radiological, biomechanical, histomorphometric and Western blot techniques...
April 15, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
Eduardo Lusa Cadore, Mikel L Sáez de Asteasu, Mikel Izquierdo
Frailty syndrome encompasses several physical hallmarks such as loss of muscle strength, power output and mass, which leads to poor gait ability, fatigue, falls and overall difficulty to perform activities of daily living. On the other hand, physical exercise interventions induce marked improvements in frailty physical hallmarks (e.g., gait ability, muscle strength, balance and falls). In addition, because cognitive impairment is closely related to frailty syndrome, exercise is an effective intervention to counteract the physical consequences of mild cognitive impairment and dementia...
April 14, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
Karla A Caillouet, Ludmila Cosio-Lima
INTRODUCTION: Health empowerment is an individual's perceived control and competence related to health and health care. The projected increased growth of the older adult population calls for a health-related empowerment movement in health education that targets older adults. Using the theory of planned behavior, the purpose of this study was to investigate the association of health empowerment and handgrip strength with intention to participate in physical activity among older adults...
April 10, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
Camilla Steen Jensen, Justyna Maria Bahl, Lærke Borg Østergaard, Peter Høgh, Lene Wermuth, Amanda Heslegrave, Henrik Zetterberg, Niels H H Heegaard, Steen Gregers Hasselbalch, Anja Hviid Simonsen
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation is recognized as part of the pathological progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the molecular mechanisms are still not entirely clear. Systemically, physical exercise has shown to have a positive modulating effect on markers of inflammation. It is not known if this general effect also takes place in the central nervous system in AD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 16 weeks of moderate to high-intensity physical exercise on selected biomarkers of inflammation both systemically and in the CNS, in patients with AD...
April 10, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
Nadja Schott, Bettina Johnen, Benjamin Holfelder
BACKGROUND: Resistance training is assumed to be a key player in counteracting the age-related decline of functional capacity as well as the incidence of falls in older adults. Functional training using free weights is presumed to mimic daily activities, but there is a lack of studies comparing free weight training with barbells and machine training in older adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the development of muscle strength for high resistance training in high functioning older people for machines as well as free-weights as well as testing the feasibility of free weight training for this target group...
April 10, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
João B Ferreira-Júnior, Hugo César Martins-Costa, Ricardo Reis Dinardi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
T Snijders, M Leenders, C P G M de Groot, L J C van Loon, L B Verdijk
INTRODUCTION: Although resistance type exercise training (RT) effectively increases muscle mass and strength in older individuals, it remains unclear whether gains in muscle mass and strength are maintained without continued supervised training. We assessed the capacity of older individuals to maintain muscle mass and strength gains one year after partaking in a successful RT program. METHODS: Fifty-three healthy older adults performed a 24-wk supervised RT program...
April 9, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
Elena Zoico, Vanni Rizzatti, Gabriella Policastro, Maela Tebon, Elena Darra, Rossi Andrea Petronio, Gloria Mazzali, Francesco Fantin, Mauro Zamboni
Aging is a physiological process characterized by an age-progressive decline in intrinsic physiological functions, with an increased risk of developing chronic metabolic conditions, such as insulin resistance and diabetes. Furthermore, from a physiopathological point of view, several authors describe an association between oxidative stress, hypoxia and these metabolic conditions. It had been suggested that adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction, senescent cell accumulation and proinflammatory pathways may be involved in this processes...
March 27, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
David E Lee, Richard A Perry, Jacob L Brown, Megan E Rosa-Caldwell, Lemuel A Brown, Wesley S Haynie, Narasimhan Rajaram, Tyrone A Washington, Nicholas P Greene
Being both advanced in age and obese each contribute to cardiac hypertrophy in a unique manner. Electron transport complexes I and IV are implicated in deficient electron transport during cardiomyopathies and contain the majority of protein subunits that are transcribed and translated by machinery localized within the mitochondria. PURPOSE: To assess myocardial mt-mRNA translation factors in relation to mitochondrial content and mtDNA-encoded protein using a mouse model of aged obesity and to test the relationship of mt-mRNA translation initiation factor 2 (mtIF2) to oxidative capacity and the cellular oxidation-reduction (redox) state in cardiomyocytes...
March 27, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
Manuel Dote-Montero, Francisco J Amaro-Gahete, Alejandro De-la-O, Lucas Jurado-Fasoli, Angel Gutierrez, Manuel J Castillo
BACKGROUND: α-Klotho is a recently discovered gene that accelerates ageing when disrupted and extends lifespan when overexpressed. The age-related decline in DHEAS and testosterone secretion and the increase in cortisol are associated with a rise of frailty and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of DHEAS, cortisol and testosterone plasma levels with S-Klotho plasma levels in healthy sedentary middle-aged adults. METHODS: 73 (39 women) healthy middle-aged sedentary adults (45-65 years old) were recruited for the present study...
March 27, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
Julia Constantinou, Jack Sullivan, Leda Mirbahai
Ageing is defined as the gradual decline of normal physiological functions in a time-dependent manner. Significant progress has been made in characterising the regulatory processes involved in the mechanisms of ageing which would have been hindered without the use of model organisms. Use of alternative model organisms greatly diversifies our understanding of different factors underpinning the ageing process and the potential translation for human application. Unique characteristics make Daphnia an attractive model organism for research into mechanisms underlying ageing, such as transparent body, short generation time, well-characterised methylome, regenerative capabilities and available naturally occurring ecotypes...
March 25, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
A K Ziegler, S M Jensen, P Schjerling, A L Mackey, J L Andersen, M Kjaer
AIM: Chronic inflammation increases with age and is correlated positively to visceral fat mass, but inversely to muscle mass. We investigated the hypothesis that resistance training would increase muscle mass and strength together with a concomitant drop in local and systemic inflammation level independent of any changes in visceral fat tissue in elderly. METHODS: 25 subjects (mean 67, range 62-70 years) were randomized to 1 year of heavy resistance training (HRT) or control (CON), and tested at 0, 4 and 12 months for physical performance, body composition (DXA), vastus lateralis muscle area (MRI) local and systemic inflammation (blood and muscle)...
March 21, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
B Sanz, H Arrieta, G Hervás, C Rezola-Pardo, F Ruiz-Litago, M Iturburu, S M Gil, A Rodríguez-Larrad, J Irazusta
Frailty is a geriatric syndrome characterized by decreasing functional reserves and increasing vulnerability to falls, injuries and declining health, leading to dependence upon caregivers. Frailty is associated not only with physical decline, but also with cognitive and psychological impairments in aging people. Higher serum adiponectin concentration has been linked to better performance on frailty measures but also to worse cognitive status. Nonetheless, several studies have proposed adiponectin as a frailty biomarker...
March 15, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
Rebecca G Reed, Ahmad Al-Attar, Steven R Presnell, Charles T Lutz, Suzanne C Segerstrom
The stability and variability of older adults' late-differentiated peripheral blood T and natural killer (NK) cells over time remains incompletely quantified or understood. We examined the variability and change over time in T and NK cell subsets in a longitudinal sample of older adults; the effects of sex, cytomegalovirus (CMV) serostatus, and chronic disease severity on immune levels and trajectories; and interdependencies among T and NK cell subsets. Older adults (N = 149, age 64-94 years, 42% male) provided blood every 6 months for 2...
March 15, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
P Ramírez-Boix, L Giménez-Llort
The increase of prevalence of mental health problems in the elderly due to the aging of the population becomes an outstanding issue since in most individuals it happens in an already complex multimorbid scenario that may include frailty and age-related medical conditions. Depression, soon the major cause of global disease burden, can be found as an age-related comorbidity and frailty, or as part of neurodegenerative diseases and where females are more vulnerable to it. Thought the multifactorial aetiology and heterogeneous nature of depression render it difficult to be modelled in animals, active behaviours elicited in the Forced Swimming Test (FST) are used to screen antidepressant treatments...
March 13, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
Branko F Olij, Martien J M Panneman, Ed F van Beeck, Juanita A Haagsma, Klaas A Hartholt, Suzanne Polinder
OBJECTIVES: Fall-related injuries are a leading cause of morbidity among older adults, leading to a high healthcare consumption and mortality. We aim to describe and quantify time trends of fall-related healthcare use and mortality among adults aged ≥65 years in the Netherlands, 1997-2016. DESIGN: Data were extracted from the Dutch Injury Surveillance System, Dutch Hospital Discharge Registry, and Cause-of-Death Statistics Netherlands, by age, sex, diagnosis, injury location, and year...
March 13, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
Haili Li, Chuanyu Wei, Ruoyu Zhou, Boyuan Wang, Yongjin Zhang, Chihao Shao, Ying Luo
Mouse models have been widely used in the research of human diseases. Aging, just as cancer, is influenced by the interaction of various genetic and environmental factors. Currently, aging could be induced by many mechanism, including telomere dysfunction, oxidase stress, DNA damage and epigenetic changes. Many of these genetic pathways are also shared by aging and cancer. The mouse models generated to study these pathways might manifest either aging or cancer phenotypes, sometimes both, which in deed has worked as a good model system in understanding the correlation between aging and cancer...
March 12, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
Hélio José Coelho-Júnior, Ivan de Oliveira Gonçalvez, Ricardo Aurélio Carvalho Sampaio, Priscila Yukari Sewo Sampaio, Eduardo Lusa Cadore, Mikel Izquierdo, Emanuele Marzetti, Marco Carlos Uchida
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although combining classical resistance (RT) and power training (PT) might be an efficient strategy to achieve optimal enhancements in body composition and physical function in older adults, the most effective approach to combine these different types of exercise training is still unknown. Periodization, an organizational model that refers to a succession of cycle that will vary in exercise intensity and/or volume to allow for the training stimulus to remain biologically challenging and effective, may represent an interesting approach...
March 9, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
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