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Unveiling the clinical and electrophysiological profile of CMTX6: Insights from two Brazilian families.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 6 (CMTX6) is an extremely rare condition associated with mutations in the PDK3 gene. To date, only three families from different countries have been reported (Australia, South Korea, and Germany). In this study, we sought to provide a comprehensive clinical and electrophysiological characterization of two Brazilian families.

METHODS: We conducted comprehensive clinical assessments, extensive electrophysiological evaluations, and performed whole-exome sequencing in the probands to investigate the genetic basis of the disease.

RESULTS: Males in the family carrying the Arg162His mutation displayed early-onset motor and/or sensory axonal neuropathy, absence of tendon jerks, pes cavus, and frequently reported pain. Females in the same family exhibited a milder phenotype of the disease with later onset and some remained asymptomatic into their 50s. In the unrelated family with a single affected male, the clinical presentation was characterized by severe progressive sensorimotor polyneuropathy accompanied by neuropathic pain.

INTERPRETATION: We report two Brazilian families with CMTX6 including one harboring a previously unpublished variant in the PDK3 gene, which co-segregates with the disease as expected in a X-linked disease. Notably, the clinical presentations across the five families with available descriptions, including our study, share striking similarities. Furthermore, the proximity of the three reported mutations suggests potential functional similarities and common underlying mechanisms. This study contributes to the growing knowledge of CMTX6 and underscores the importance of international collaborations in studying rare genetic disorders.

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