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Effectiveness and Safety of Apatinib Plus Programmed Cell Death Protein 1 Blockades for Patients with Treatment-refractory Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: A Retrospective Exploratory Study.

This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of apatinib plus programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) blockades for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) who were refractory to the standard regimens. In this retrospective study, patients with metastatic CRC who received apatinib plus PD-1 blockades in clinical practice were included. The initial dosage of apatinib was 250 mg or 500 mg, and PD-1 blockades were comprised of camrelizumab, sintilimab and pembrolizumab. Efficacy and safety data were collected through the hospital's electronic medical record system. From October 2018 to March 2022, a total of 43 patients with metastatic CRC were evaluated for efficacy and safety. The results showed an objective response rate of 25.6% (95% CI, 13.5%-41.2%) and a disease control rate of 72.1% (95% CI, 56.3%-84.7%). The median progression-free survival (PFS) of the cohort was 5.8 months (95% CI, 3.81-7.79), and the median overall survival (OS) was 10.3 months (95% CI, 5.75-14.85). The most common adverse reactions were fatigue (76.7%), hypertension (72.1%), diarrhea (62.8%), and hand-foot syndrome (51.2%). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status and location of CRC (left or right-side) were independent factors to predict PFS of patients with metastatic CRC treated with the combination regimen. Consequently, the combination of apatinib and PD-1 blockades demonstrated potential efficacy and acceptable safety for patients with treatment-refractory metastatic CRC. This conclusion should be confirmed in prospective clinical trials subsequently.

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