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Ketogenic diet inhibits neointimal hyperplasia by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation.

OBJECTIVE: Neointimal hyperplasia is the primary mechanism underlying atherosclerosis and restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. Ketogenic diet (KD) exerts beneficial effects in various diseases, but whether it could serve as non-drug therapy for neointimal hyperplasia remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of KD on neointimal hyperplasia and the potential mechanisms.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Carotid artery balloon-injury model was employed in adult Sprague-Dawley rats to induce neointimal hyperplasia. Then, animals were subjected to either standard rodent chow or KD. For in-vitro experiment, impacts of β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB), the main mediator of KD effects, on platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation were determined. Balloon injury induced event intimal hyperplasia and upregulation of protein expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and these changes were significantly ameliorated by KD. In addition, β-HB could markedly inhibit PDGF-BB induced VMSC migration and proliferation, as well as inhibiting expressions of PCNA and α-SMC. Furthermore, KD inhibited balloon-injury induced oxidative stress in carotid artery, indicated by reduced ROS level, malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. We also found balloon-injury induced inflammation in carotid artery was suppressed by KD, indicated by decreased expressions of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α, and increased expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10.

CONCLUSION: KD attenuates neointimal hyperplasia through suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation to inhibit VSMC proliferation and migration. KD may represent a promising non-drug therapy for neointimal hyperplasia associated diseases.

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