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The Role of Artificial Intelligence in Deciphering Diet-Disease Relationships: Case Studies.

Modernization of society from a rural, hunter-gatherer setting into an urban and industrial one, with the associated dietary changes, has led to an increased prevalence of cardiometabolic and additional noncommunicable diseases, such as cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, and neurodegenerative and autoimmune disorders. However, while dietary sciences have been rapidly evolving to meet these challenges, validation and translation of experimental results into clinical practice remain limited for multiple reasons, including inherent ethnic, gender, and cultural interindividual variability, among other methodological, dietary reporting-related, and analytical issues. Recently, large clinical cohorts with artificial intelligence analytics have introduced new precision and personalized nutrition concepts that enable one to successfully bridge these gaps in a real-life setting. In this review, we highlight selected examples of case studies at the intersection between diet-disease research and artificial intelligence. We discuss their potential and challenges and offer an outlook toward the transformation of dietary sciences into individualized clinical translation. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Nutrition , Volume 43 is August 2023. Please see https://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

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