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Annual Review of Nutrition

Suzy V Torti, David H Manz, Bibbin T Paul, Nicole Blanchette-Farra, Frank M Torti
This review explores the multifaceted role that iron has in cancer biology. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between excess iron and increased cancer incidence and risk, while experimental studies have implicated iron in cancer initiation, tumor growth, and metastasis. The roles of iron in proliferation, metabolism, and metastasis underpin the association of iron with tumor growth and progression. Cancer cells exhibit an iron-seeking phenotype achieved through dysregulation of iron metabolic proteins...
August 21, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
Andrew M Jones, Christopher Thompson, Lee J Wylie, Anni Vanhatalo
Nitric oxide (NO) plays a plethora of important roles in the human body. Insufficient production of NO (for example, during older age and in various disease conditions) can adversely impact health and physical performance. In addition to its endogenous production through the oxidation of l-arginine, NO can be formed nonenzymatically via the reduction of nitrate and nitrite, and the storage of these anions can be augmented by the consumption of nitrate-rich foodstuffs such as green leafy vegetables. Recent studies indicate that dietary nitrate supplementation, administered most commonly in the form of beetroot juice, can ( a) improve muscle efficiency by reducing the O2 cost of submaximal exercise and thereby improve endurance exercise performance and ( b) enhance skeletal muscle contractile function and thereby improve muscle power and sprint exercise performance...
August 21, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
Martha S Field, Elena Kamynina, James Chon, Patrick J Stover
Despite unequivocal evidence that folate deficiency increases risk for human pathologies, and that folic acid intake among women of childbearing age markedly decreases risk for birth defects, definitive evidence for a causal biochemical pathway linking folate to disease and birth defect etiology remains elusive. The de novo and salvage pathways for thymidylate synthesis translocate to the nucleus of mammalian cells during S- and G2/M-phases of the cell cycle and associate with the DNA replication and repair machinery, which limits uracil misincorporation into DNA and genome instability...
August 21, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
Rudi Balling, Patrick J Stover
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 21, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
Scot R Kimball, Charles H Lang
Both acute intoxication and longer-term cumulative ingestion of alcohol negatively impact the metabolic phenotype of both skeletal and cardiac muscle, independent of overt protein calorie malnutrition, resulting in loss of skeletal muscle strength and cardiac contractility. In large part, these alcohol-induced changes are mediated by a decrease in protein synthesis that in turn is governed by impaired activity of a protein kinase, the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). Herein, we summarize recent advances in understanding mTOR signal transduction, similarities and differences between the effects of alcohol on this central metabolic controller in skeletal muscle and in the heart, and the effects of acute versus chronic alcohol intake...
August 21, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
Patrick Borel, Charles Desmarchelier
Recent data have shown that interindividual variability in the bioavailability of vitamins A (β-carotene), D, and E, and carotenoids (lutein and lycopene), as well as that of phytosterols, is modulated by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The identified SNPs are in or near genes involved in intestinal uptake or efflux of these compounds, as well as in genes involved in their metabolism and transport. The phenotypic effect of each SNP is usually low, but combinations of SNPs can explain a significant part of the variability...
August 21, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
Manu S Goyal, Lora L Iannotti, Marcus E Raichle
Appraising success in meeting the world's nutritional needs has largely focused on infant mortality and anthropometric measurements with an emphasis on the first 1,000 days (conception to approximately age 2 years). This ignores the unique nutritional needs of the human brain. Although the intrauterine environment and the early postnatal years are important, equally critical periods follow during which the brain's intricate wiring is established for a lifetime of experience-driven remodeling. At the peak of this process during childhood, the human brain may account for 50% of the body's basal nutritional requirement...
August 21, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
Martin J Shearer, Toshio Okano
Vitamin K (VK) is an essential cofactor for the post-translational conversion of peptide-bound glutamate to γ-carboxyglutamate. The resultant vitamin K-dependent proteins are known or postulated to possess a variety of biological functions, chiefly in the maintenance of hemostasis. The vitamin K cycle is a cellular pathway that drives γ-carboxylation and recycling of VK via γ-carboxyglutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) and vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR), respectively. In this review, we show how novel molecular biological approaches are providing new insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms caused by rare mutations of both GGCX and VKOR...
August 21, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
Mads F Hjorth, Yishai Zohar, James O Hill, Arne Astrup
During the past several decades, numerous trials have compared various diets for the management of overweight and obesity, assuming that a single dietary strategy would be appropriate for all individuals. These studies have failed to provide strong evidence for the efficacy of any particular diet, and it is likely that different people will have different levels of success on different diets. We identified studies investigating pretreatment glycemia or insulinemia status, or both, of the individual as prognostic markers of weight loss during periods in which the composition of a participant's diet was known...
August 21, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
Claudio Franceschi, Rita Ostan, Aurelia Santoro
Individuals capable of reaching the extreme limit of human life such as centenarians are characterized by an exceptionally healthy phenotype-that is, a low number of diseases, low blood pressure, optimal metabolic and endocrine parameters, and increased diversity in the gut microbiota-and they are epigenetically younger than their chronological age. We present data suggesting that such a remarkable phenotype is largely similar to that found in adults following a calorie-restricted diet. Interviews with centenarians and historical data on the nutritional and lifestyle habits of Italians during the twentieth century suggest that as children and into adulthood, centenarians lived in an environment that was nonobesogenic, but at the same time the environment did not produce malnutrition...
August 21, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
Marianne Wessling-Resnick
Because both the host and pathogen require iron, the innate immune response carefully orchestrates control over iron metabolism to limit its availability during times of infection. Nutritional iron deficiency can impair host immunity, while iron overload can cause oxidative stress to propagate harmful viral mutations. An emerging enigma is that many viruses use the primary gatekeeper of iron metabolism, the transferrin receptor, as a means to enter cells. Why and how this iron gate is a viral target for infection are the focus of this review...
August 21, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
Sydney E Scott, Yoel Inbar, Christopher D Wirz, Dominique Brossard, Paul Rozin
Genetically engineered food has had its DNA, RNA, or proteins manipulated by intentional human intervention. We provide an overview of the importance and regulation of genetically engineered food and lay attitudes toward it. We first discuss the pronaturalness context in the United States and Europe that preceded the appearance of genetically engineered food. We then review the definition, prevalence, and regulation of this type of food. Genetically engineered food is widespread in some countries, but there is great controversy worldwide among individuals, governments, and other institutions about the advisability of growing and consuming it...
August 21, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
Nour Makarem, Elisa V Bandera, Joseph M Nicholson, Niyati Parekh
High sugar intake may increase cancer risk by promoting insulin-glucose dysregulation, oxidative stress, inflammation, and body adiposity, but epidemiologic evidence is unclear. Associations between dietary sugars and lifestyle-related cancer risk from longitudinal studies were evaluated. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL and identified 37 prospective cohort studies (1990-2017) reporting multivariable adjusted risk estimates for dietary sugars in relation to cancer. Of 15 and 14 studies on total sugar and sucrose respectively, 11 reported a null association in relation to cancer...
August 21, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
Salvador Alonso, Ömer H Yilmaz
Dietary composition and calorie intake are major determinants of health and disease. Calorie restriction promotes metabolic changes that favor tissue regeneration and is arguably the most successful and best-conserved antiaging intervention. Obesity, in contrast, impairs tissue homeostasis and is a major risk factor for the development of diseases including cancer. Stem cells, the central mediators of tissue regeneration, integrate dietary and energy cues via nutrient-sensing pathways to maintain growth or respond to stress...
August 21, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
Anne K Bozack, Roheeni Saxena, Mary V Gamble
Exposure to inorganic arsenic (InAs) via drinking water and/or food is a considerable worldwide problem. Methylation of InAs generates monomethyl (MMAsIII+V )- and dimethyl (DMAsIII+V )-arsenical species in a process that facilitates urinary As elimination; however, MMAs is considerably more toxic than either InAs or DMAs. Emerging evidence suggests that incomplete methylation of As to DMAs, resulting in increased MMAs, is associated with increased risk for a host of As-related health outcomes. The biochemical pathway that provides methyl groups for As methylation, one-carbon metabolism (OCM), is influenced by folate and other micronutrients, including choline and betaine...
August 21, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
Earl H Harrison, Loredana Quadro
Apocarotenoids are cleavage products of C40 isoprenoid pigments, named carotenoids, synthesized exclusively by plants and microorganisms. The colors of flowers and fruits and the photosynthetic process are examples of the biological properties conferred by carotenoids to these organisms. Mammals do not synthesize carotenoids but obtain them from foods of plant origin. Apocarotenoids are generated upon enzymatic and nonenzymatic cleavage of the parent compounds both in plants and in the tissues of mammals that have ingested carotenoid-containing foods...
August 21, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
Ronaldo P Ferraris, Jun-Yong Choe, Chirag R Patel
Increased understanding of fructose metabolism, which begins with uptake via the intestine, is important because fructose now constitutes a physiologically significant portion of human diets and is associated with increased incidence of certain cancers and metabolic diseases. New insights in our knowledge of intestinal fructose absorption mediated by the facilitative glucose transporter GLUT5 in the apical membrane and by GLUT2 in the basolateral membrane are reviewed. We begin with studies related to structure as well as ligand binding, then revisit the controversial proposition that apical GLUT2 is the main mediator of intestinal fructose absorption...
August 21, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
Lucas D BonDurant, Matthew J Potthoff
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an endocrine hormone derived from the liver that exerts pleiotropic effects on the body to maintain overall metabolic homeostasis. During the past decade, there has been an enormous effort made to understand the physiological roles of FGF21 in regulating metabolism and to identify the mechanism for its potent pharmacological effects to reverse diabetes and obesity. Through both human and rodent studies, it is now evident that FGF21 levels are dynamically regulated by nutrient sensing, and consequently FGF21 functions as a critical regulator of nutrient homeostasis...
August 21, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
Elizabeth M Cespedes Feliciano, Candyce H Kroenke, Bette J Caan
Although higher body mass index (BMI) increases the incidence of many cancers, BMI can also exhibit a null or U-shaped relationship with survival among patients with existing disease; this association of higher BMI with improved survival is termed the obesity paradox. This review discusses possible explanations for the obesity paradox, the prevalence and consequences of low muscle mass in cancer patients, and future research directions. It is unlikely that methodological biases, such as reverse causality or confounding, fully explain the obesity paradox...
August 21, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
Michael J Gibney
From my senior school days, I had wanted to pursue a career in food. In quite what capacity I was not too sure. So my starting points were within the fields of animal nutrition before moving for the major part of my career to medical schools to study human nutrition and health. My career scientific achievements lie within the Kuhnian spectrum of normal science, but within that normality, I was always one to challenge conventional wisdom. An academic career is about more than just research. It is about teaching and not just the minutiae of nutrition, but about life and living, about challenges and failures...
August 21, 2018: Annual Review of Nutrition
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