journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37603433/precision-nutrition-the-hype-is-exceeding-the-science-and-evidentiary-standards-needed-to-inform-public-health-recommendations-for-prevention-of-chronic-disease
#1
REVIEW
Regan L Bailey, Patrick J Stover
As dietary guidance for populations shifts from preventing deficiency disorders to chronic disease risk reduction, the biology supporting such guidance becomes more complex due to the multifactorial risk profile of disease and inherent population heterogeneity in the diet-disease relationship. Diet is a primary driver of chronic disease risk, and population-based guidance should account for individual responses. Cascading effects on evidentiary standards for population-based guidance are not straightforward...
August 21, 2023: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37603432/nutrition-in-the-age-of-precision-and-systems-biology
#2
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Rudi Balling, Patrick J Stover
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 21, 2023: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37603431/current-knowledge-about-the-impact-of-maternal-and-infant-nutrition-on-the-development-of-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis
#3
REVIEW
Tomás Cerdó, Ana Nieto-Ruíz, José Antonio García-Santos, Anna Rodríguez-Pöhnlein, María García-Ricobaraza, Antonio Suárez, Mercedes G Bermúdez, Cristina Campoy
The prenatal and early postnatal periods are stages during which dynamic changes and the development of the brain and gut microbiota occur, and nutrition is one of the most important modifiable factors that influences this process. Given the bidirectional cross talk between the gut microbiota and the brain through the microbiota-gut-brain axis (MGBA), there is growing interest in evaluating the potential effects of nutritional interventions administered during these critical developmental windows on gut microbiota composition and function and their association with neurodevelopmental outcomes...
August 21, 2023: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37603430/osteocalcin-a-multifaceted-bone-derived-hormone
#4
REVIEW
Gerard Karsenty
Together, loss- and gain-of-function experiments have identified the bone-derived secreted molecule osteocalcin as a hormone with a broad reach in rodents and primates. Following its binding to one of three receptors, osteocalcin exerts a profound influence on various aspects of energy metabolism as well as steroidogenesis, neurotransmitter biosynthesis and thereby male fertility, electrolyte homeostasis, cognition, the acute stress response, and exercise capacity. Although this review focuses mostly on the regulation of energy metabolism by osteocalcin, it also touches on its other functions...
August 21, 2023: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37603429/causes-and-clinical-sequelae-of-riboflavin-deficiency
#5
REVIEW
Helene McNulty, Kristina Pentieva, Mary Ward
Riboflavin, in its cofactor forms flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN), plays fundamental roles in energy metabolism, cellular antioxidant potential, and metabolic interactions with other micronutrients, including iron, vitamin B6 , and folate. Severe riboflavin deficiency, largely confined to low-income countries, clinically manifests as cheilosis, angular stomatitis, glossitis, seborrheic dermatitis, and severe anemia with erythroid hypoplasia. Subclinical deficiency may be much more widespread, including in high-income countries, but typically goes undetected because riboflavin biomarkers are rarely measured in human studies...
August 21, 2023: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37603428/the-placenta-a-maternofetal-interface
#6
REVIEW
Kimberly O'Brien, Yiqin Wang
The placenta is the gatekeeper between the mother and the fetus. Over the first trimester of pregnancy, the fetus is nourished by uterine gland secretions in a process known as histiotrophic nutrition. During the second trimester of pregnancy, placentation has evolved to the point at which nutrients are delivered to the placenta via maternal blood (hemotrophic nutrition). Over gestation, the placenta must adapt to these variable nutrient supplies, to alterations in maternal physiology and blood flow, and to dynamic changes in fetal growth rates...
August 21, 2023: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37603427/gluconeogenesis-flux-in-metabolic-disease
#7
REVIEW
Ankit Shah, Fredric E Wondisford
Gluconeogenesis is a critical biosynthetic process that helps maintain whole-body glucose homeostasis and becomes altered in certain medical diseases. We review gluconeogenic flux in various medical diseases, including common metabolic disorders, hormonal imbalances, specific inborn genetic errors, and cancer. We discuss how the altered gluconeogenic activity contributes to disease pathogenesis using data from experiments using isotopic tracer and spectroscopy methodologies. These in vitro, animal, and human studies provide insights into the changes in circulating levels of available gluconeogenesis substrates and the efficiency of converting those substrates to glucose by gluconeogenic organs...
August 21, 2023: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37380178/role-of-diet-microbiome-interaction-in-gastrointestinal-disorders-and-strategies-to-modulate-them-with-microbiome-targeted-therapies
#8
REVIEW
Ajita Jadhav, Aditya Bajaj, Yang Xiao, Manasvini Markandey, Vineet Ahuja, Purna C Kashyap
Diet is an important determinant of health and consequently is often implicated in the development of disease, particularly gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, given the high prevalence of meal-related symptoms. The mechanisms underlying diet-driven pathophysiology are not well understood, but recent studies suggest that gut microbiota may mediate the effect of diet on GI physiology. In this review, we focus primarily on two distinct GI diseases where the role of diet has been best studied: irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease...
August 21, 2023: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37307855/sources-and-sinks-of-serine-in-nutrition-health-and-disease
#9
REVIEW
Michal K Handzlik, Christian M Metallo
Amino acid dysregulation has emerged as an important driver of disease progression in various contexts. l-Serine lies at a central node of metabolism, linking carbohydrate metabolism, transamination, glycine, and folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism to protein synthesis and various downstream bioenergetic and biosynthetic pathways. l-Serine is produced locally in the brain but is sourced predominantly from glycine and one-carbon metabolism in peripheral tissues via liver and kidney metabolism. Compromised regulation or activity of l-serine synthesis and disposal occurs in the context of genetic diseases as well as chronic disease states, leading to low circulating l-serine levels and pathogenesis in the nervous system, retina, heart, and aging muscle...
August 21, 2023: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37285555/intestinal-amino-acid-transport-and-metabolic-health
#10
REVIEW
Stefan Bröer
Amino acids derived from protein digestion are important nutrients for the growth and maintenance of organisms. Approximately half of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids can be synthesized by mammalian organisms, while the other half are essential and must be acquired from the nutrition. Absorption of amino acids is mediated by a set of amino acid transporters together with transport of di- and tripeptides. They provide amino acids for systemic needs and for enterocyte metabolism. Absorption is largely complete at the end of the small intestine...
August 21, 2023: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37257420/assessing-and-monitoring-nutrition-security-to-promote-healthy-dietary-intake-and-outcomes-in-the-united-states
#11
REVIEW
Hilary K Seligman, Ronli Levi, Victoria O Adebiyi, Alisha Coleman-Jensen, Joanne F Guthrie, Edward A Frongillo
The US Department of Agriculture's Economic Research Service leads the federal government in data development and research on food security in US households. Nutrition security is an emerging concept that, although closely related, is distinct from food security. No standard conceptualization or measure of nutrition security currently exists. We review the existing research on nutrition security and how it is informed by the more robust literature on food security and diet quality. Based on this review, we propose a conceptual framework for understanding nutrition security and its relationship to food security...
August 21, 2023: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37253681/iron-homeostasis-during-pregnancy-maternal-placental-and-fetal-regulatory-mechanisms
#12
REVIEW
Veena Sangkhae, Allison L Fisher, Tomas Ganz, Elizabeta Nemeth
Pregnancy entails a large negative balance of iron, an essential micronutrient. During pregnancy, iron requirements increase substantially to support both maternal red blood cell expansion and the development of the placenta and fetus. As insufficient iron has long been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes, universal iron supplementation is common practice before and during pregnancy. However, in high-resource countries with iron fortification of staple foods and increased red meat consumption, the effects of too much iron supplementation during pregnancy have become a concern because iron excess has also been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes...
August 21, 2023: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37207356/malnourished-microbes-host-microbiome-interactions-in-child-undernutrition
#13
REVIEW
Helen J Jones, Claire D Bourke, Jonathan R Swann, Ruairi C Robertson
Childhood undernutrition is a major global health burden that is only partially resolved by nutritional interventions. Both chronic and acute forms of child undernutrition are characterized by derangements in multiple biological systems including metabolism, immunity, and endocrine systems. A growing body of evidence supports a role of the gut microbiome in mediating these pathways influencing early life growth. Observational studies report alterations in the gut microbiome of undernourished children, while preclinical studies suggest that this can trigger intestinal enteropathy, alter host metabolism, and disrupt immune-mediated resistance against enteropathogens, each of which contribute to poor early life growth...
August 21, 2023: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37207355/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-omega-3-fatty-acids-mechanisms-and-clinical-use
#14
REVIEW
Melinda H Spooner, Donald B Jump
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic fatty liver disease worldwide, particularly in obese and type 2 diabetic individuals. Currently, there are no therapies for NAFLD that have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Herein, we examine the rationale for using ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in NAFLD therapy. This focus is based on the finding that NAFLD severity is associated with a reduction of hepatic C20-22 ω3 PUFAs. Because C20-22 ω3 PUFAs are pleiotropic regulators of cell function, loss of C20-22 ω3 PUFAs has the potential to significantly impact hepatic function...
August 21, 2023: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37253680/a-conversation-with-james-ntambi
#15
REVIEW
James M Ntambi, Patrick J Stover
An interview with James M. Ntambi, professor of biochemistry and the Katherine Berns Van Donk Steenbock Professor in Nutrition, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, took place via Zoom in April 2022. He was interviewed by Patrick J. Stover, director of the Institute for Advancing Health through Agriculture and professor of nutrition and biochemistry and biophysics at Texas A&M University. Dr. James Ntambi is a true pioneer in the field of nutritional biochemistry...
May 30, 2023: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37207358/the-role-of-artificial-intelligence-in-deciphering-diet-disease-relationships-case-studies
#16
REVIEW
Yotam Cohen, Rafael Valdés-Mas, Eran Elinav
Modernization of society from a rural, hunter-gatherer setting into an urban and industrial one, with the associated dietary changes, has led to an increased prevalence of cardiometabolic and additional noncommunicable diseases, such as cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, and neurodegenerative and autoimmune disorders. However, while dietary sciences have been rapidly evolving to meet these challenges, validation and translation of experimental results into clinical practice remain limited for multiple reasons, including inherent ethnic, gender, and cultural interindividual variability, among other methodological, dietary reporting-related, and analytical issues...
May 19, 2023: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37207357/the-multifunctional-family-of-mammalian-fatty-acid-binding-proteins
#17
REVIEW
Judith Storch, Betina Corsico
Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are small lipid-binding proteins abundantly expressed in tissues that are highly active in fatty acid (FA) metabolism. Ten mammalian FABPs have been identified, with tissue-specific expression patterns and highly conserved tertiary structures. FABPs were initially studied as intracellular FA transport proteins. Further investigation has demonstrated their participation in lipid metabolism, both directly and via regulation of gene expression, and in signaling within their cells of expression...
May 19, 2023: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37196365/major-gaps-in-understanding-dietary-supplement-use-in-health-and-disease
#18
REVIEW
Regan L Bailey, Shinyoung Jun, Alexandra E Cowan, Heather A Eicher-Miller, Jaime J Gahche, Johanna T Dwyer, Terryl J Hartman, Diane C Mitchell, Rebecca A Seguin-Fowler, Raymond J Carroll, Janet A Tooze
Precise dietary assessment is critical for accurate exposure classification in nutritional research, typically aimed at understanding how diet relates to health. Dietary supplement (DS) use is widespread and represents a considerable source of nutrients. However, few studies have compared the best methods to measure DSs. Our literature review on the relative validity and reproducibility of DS instruments in the United States [e.g., product inventories, questionnaires, and 24-h dietary recalls (24HR)] identified five studies that examined validity ( n = 5) and/or reproducibility ( n = 4)...
May 17, 2023: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/35995050/folic-acid-and-the-prevention-of-birth-defects-30-years-of-opportunity-and-controversies
#19
REVIEW
Krista S Crider, Yan Ping Qi, Lorraine F Yeung, Cara T Mai, Lauren Head Zauche, Arick Wang, Kelicia Daniels, Jennifer L Williams
For three decades, the US Public Health Service has recommended that all persons capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 μg/day of folic acid (FA) to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs). The neural tube forms by 28 days after conception. Fortification can be an effective NTD prevention strategy in populations with limited access to folic acid foods and/or supplements. This review describes the status of mandatory FA fortification among countries that fortify ( n = 71) and the research describing the impact of those programs on NTD rates (up to 78% reduction), blood folate concentrations [red blood cell folate concentrations increased ∼1...
August 22, 2022: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/35995049/dietary-fructose-and-fructose-induced-pathologies
#20
REVIEW
Sunhee Jung, Hosung Bae, Won-Suk Song, Cholsoon Jang
The consumption of fructose as sugar and high-fructose corn syrup has markedly increased during the past several decades. This trend coincides with the exponential rise of metabolic diseases, including obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. While the biochemical pathways of fructose metabolism were elucidated in the early 1990s, organismal-level fructose metabolism and its whole-body pathophysiological impacts have been only recently investigated. In this review, we discuss the history of fructose consumption, biochemical and molecular pathways involved in fructose metabolism in different organs and gut microbiota, the role of fructose in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases, and the remaining questions to treat such diseases...
August 22, 2022: Annual Review of Nutrition
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