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Prevalence and risk factors of disordered eating behavior in youth with hypertension disorders.

BACKGROUND: Adolescents with certain health conditions requiring lifestyle management, such as diabetes mellitus, have higher disordered eating behavior (DEB) risk than the general adolescent population, but DEB is underdiagnosed and can lead to adverse health consequences. In youth with other conditions requiring lifestyle counseling such as hypertension (HTN), DEB prevalence and associated risk factors are unknown. We hypothesized that youth with HTN disorders would have higher DEB prevalence than the general adolescent population, and that obesity, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and less specialized lifestyle counseling would be associated with higher DEB risk.

METHODS: Prospective cross-sectional study of youth aged 11-18 years with HTN disorders. We excluded patients with diabetes mellitus, kidney failure or transplantation, or gastrostomy tube dependence. We collected data via surveys and electronic health record abstraction. We administered the validated SCOFF DEB screening questionnaire. We compared DEB prevalence using a one-sample z-test of proportions (p0  = 0.1) and estimated DEB risk by obesity, CKD, and lifestyle counseling source using multivariable generalized linear models.

RESULTS: Of 74 participants, 59% identified as male, 22% as Black or African American, and 36% as Hispanic or Latino; 58% had obesity and 26% had CKD. DEB prevalence was 28% (95% CI 18-39%, p < 0.001). CKD was associated with higher DEB prevalence (adjusted RR 2.17, 95% CL 1.09 to 4.32), but obesity and lifestyle counseling source were not.

CONCLUSIONS: DEB prevalence is higher in youth with HTN disorders and comparable to other conditions requiring lifestyle counseling. Youth with HTN disorders may benefit from DEB screening. A higher resolution version of the Graphical abstract is available as Supplementary information.

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