Pharmacologic activities of phytosteroids in inflammatory diseases: Mechanism of action and therapeutic potentials

Rishab Marahatha, Kabita Gyawali, Kabita Sharma, Narayan Gyawali, Parbati Tandan, Ashma Adhikari, Grishma Timilsina, Salyan Bhattarai, Ganesh Lamichhane, Ashis Acharya, Ishwor Pathak, Hari Prasad Devkota, Niranjan Parajuli
Phytotherapy Research: PTR 2021 May 6
Natural products and their derivatives are known to be useful for treating numerous diseases since ancient times. Because of their high therapeutic potentials, the use of different medicinal plants is possible to treat varied inflammation-mediated chronic diseases. Among natural products, phytosteroids have emerged as promising compounds mostly because they have diverse pharmacological activities. Currently, available medications exert numerous systemic toxicities, including hypertension, immune suppression, osteoporosis, and metabolic abnormalities. Thus, further research on phytosteroids to subside these complications is of significant importance. In this study, the information on phytosteroids, their types, and actions against inflammation, and allergic complications was collected by a systematic survey of literature on several scientific search engines. The literature review suggested that phytosteroids exhibit antiinflammatory action via different modes through transrepression or selective COX-2 enzymes. Also, in silico ADMET analysis was carried out on available phytosteroids to uncover their pharmacokinetic properties. Our analysis has shown that eight compounds: withaferin A, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, guggulsterone, diosgenin, sarsasapogenin, physalin A, and dioscin, -isolated from medicinal plants show similar pharmacokinetic properties as compared to dexamethasone, commercially available glucocorticoid. These phytosteroids could be useful for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, multiple sclerosis, asthma, and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, systematic research is required to explore potent phytosteroids with lesser side effects, which might substitute the current medications.

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