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Phytotherapy Research: PTR

Min Zhang, Yan Chen, Mei-Ju Yang, Xin-Rong Fan, Hui Xie, Ling Zhang, Yu-Song Nie, Miao Yan
The purpose of this study was to investigate the renal protective effect of celastrol on diabetic rats. Furthermore, the mechanism of its action was discussed whether it was related to MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway. There were a total of 36 rats. Six rats were randomly chosen as the control group. The remaining 30 rats were given 1% streptozotocin intraperitoneal injection (50 mg/kg) and were randomly divided into five groups: the model control group, the low-dose celastrol group, the high-dose celastrol group, the Tripterygium wilfordii polyglycosides group, and the MAPK/NF-κB inhibitor group...
February 15, 2019: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Hongnan Zheng, Yuting Su, Yang Sun, Tianle Tang, Di Zhang, Xuefeng He, Jianbo Wang
Acute hypobaric hypoxia (HH) gives rise to persistent cognitive impairment, influencing memory function specifically. Echinacoside (ECH), one of the phenylethanoids isolated from the stems of Cistanche salsa, has been reported to prevent ischemia induced by neuronal injury traditionally. This study then tried to investigate whether ECH could alleviate HH-induced memory deficit. Ten C57 mice were used as control, and 50 were exposed to HH equivalent to 6,100 m for 7 days in a decompression chamber and were given ECH daily (50, 75, or 100 mg/kg) through gavage during the period of exposure...
February 15, 2019: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Zhiyou Yang, Tomoharu Kuboyama, Chihiro Tohda
Two kinds of microglia are known, classical M1 and alternative M2 phenotypes. Amyloid β (Aβ), a critical cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD), promotes M1 microglial polarization, leading to neuroinflammation and neuronal death. M2 microglia play important roles in anti-inflammatory effects, Aβ clearance, and memory recovery in AD. Therefore, increasing of M2 microglia is expected to recover from AD. We previously found that naringenin, a blood-brain barrier penetrating compound, decreased Aβ deposits and recovers memory function in transgenic AD model mice...
February 15, 2019: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Ting Wang, Chun-Han Sun, Hao-Bo Zhong, Yan Gong, Zhong-Kai Cui, Jing Xie, Yan-Peng Wang, Chuang Liang, He-He Cao, Xiao-Rui Chen, Zhi-Peng Zou, Sheng-Fa Li, Xiao-Chun Bai
Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mineral density and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue. N-(3-methoxybenzyl)-(9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadecatrienamide (MBOC) is one of the macamides isolated from Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.), a cruciferous plant from the Andes of Peru. In this study, C3H/10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells were treated with MBOC in osteogenic induction medium. An ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model was used to investigate the effect of 1-month MBOC treatment on the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis...
February 15, 2019: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Douglas F Rambo, Renata Biegelmeyer, Natally S B Toson, Roger R Dresch, Paulo Roberto H Moreno, Amélia T Henriques
Erythrina L. genus (Fabaceae) comprises about 115 species, and it has been extensively studied, mainly because of its alkaloids, which have pharmacological properties. References demonstrated that Erythrina spp. have a potential to act in the central nervous system, presenting anxiolytic and anticonvulsant properties already established. Phytochemical investigations confirmed the presence of tetracyclic alkaloids as the major compounds. However, other alkaloid classes have also been reported, including dimeric and trimeric substances, coupled through direct polymerization or two erythrinine units via an acetyl glucose...
February 14, 2019: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Ashti Morovati, Bahram Pourghassem Gargari, Parvin Sarbakhsh, Hushyar Azari, Lida Lotfi-Dizaji
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of interconnected serious disorders, which is a major health problem whose prevalence is increasing. Oxidative stress and inflammation contribute to the disease pathogenesis and its complications. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Cuminum cyminum L. (which has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties) essential oil (CuEO) supplementation on inflammatory and antioxidant status in patients with MetS. In this clinical trial, 56 patients with MetS aged 18-60 years received either 75-mg CuEO or placebo soft gel, thrice daily, for 8 weeks...
February 14, 2019: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Angel E Sánchez Artiles, Areeba Awan, Mitchell Karl, Antonello Santini
Cannabis (medical marijuana) is generally considered a low toxicity drug. The plant belongs to the family Cannabaceae (Urticales). Two main species may be recognized: Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica. Plants of this species contain many psychoactive components, the cannabinoids, including the primary psychoactive compound Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active substance present in Marijuana. The history of its cultivation and use dates back thousands of years. A possible first documented use for medical purposes of this drug is found in Chinese records dated from 28th century BC...
February 14, 2019: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Zhigang Liu, Ru Wang, Chaohui Zhang, Shanshan Guo, Peijie Chen
This study investigates a 42-year-old man who used sulfur powder adhered to cucumber slices to successfully self-treat a vitiligo condition. The treatment has resulted in no recurrence of the disease for 21 years. We analyzed the mechanism of this folk prescription for vitiligo, concluding that the success of the self-treatment may be mainly associated with hydrogen sulfide (H2 S). The antibacterial activity of pentathionic acid (H2 S5 O6 ) and the antioxidant activity of cucumber might also play a role in the treatment...
February 11, 2019: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Zhe Yang, Ming-Zhi Zhu, Yang-Bo Zhang, Bei-Bei Wen, Hui-Min An, Xing-Chang Ou, Yi-Fan Xiong, Hai-Yan Lin, Zhong-Hua Liu, Jian-An Huang
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and caffeine in tea exert anti-obesity effects and induces nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) amelioration. However, previous studies usually performed a high-dose EGCG administration, whereas the insecurity was arisen in recent researches. In this study, we treated obese rats with an elaborate dose-40 mg/kg EGCG, 20 mg/kg caffeine, and the coadministration of them as low dose, which were similar to the daily intake; 160 mg/kg EGCG as high dose, which was the maximum safe dose had touched the contentious edge...
February 11, 2019: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Yangyi Li, Chengbo Chen, Shunyuan Li, Changcheng Jiang
The aim of this study was to investigate whether ginsenoside Rf can effectively relieve pain hypersensitivity in a neuropathic pain rat model. Neuropathic pain was induced in rats by chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the right sciatic nerve. Ginsenoside Rf was administered intraperitoneally after CCI surgery. The von Frey filament test and forced swimming test were performed to examine pain hypersensitivity and depression-like behavior in rats. Western blot was used to measure the levels of inflammatory cytokines in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and the spinal cord...
February 11, 2019: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Bei Cui, Xiaqing Guo, Yanhui You, Rongli Fu
Farrerol was found to possess neuroprotective effect; however, the mechanism remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of farrerol on MPP+ -induced inflammation in mouse microglial BV-2 cells and to elaborate the underlying mechanism. MTT assay was performed to measure the cell viability. The pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); inducible nitric oxide synthase; and cyclooxygenase 2 were measured. The expression of p-p65, p-IκBα, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and myeloid differentiation primary response 88 were analyzed by western blot...
February 8, 2019: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Kuan-Chun Chen, Chao-Hsun Yang, Ting-Ting Li, Christos C Zouboulis, Yu-Chun Huang
Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc. (Myricaceae), known as Chinese bayberry, is traditionally used as folk medicine in Asian countries. The interaction of Propionibacterium acnes signalling with sebocytes is considered important in the pathogenesis of acne. In the present study, extracts and active compounds of Chinese bayberry were used to determine chemical antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory effects in P. acnes-stimulated human SZ95 sebocytes. A high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection system was used to analyse the phenolic composition of bayberry extracts...
February 8, 2019: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
María C Cittadini, Gastón Repossi, Claudia Albrecht, Romina Di Paola Naranjo, Agustín R Miranda, Sonia de Pascual-Teresa, Elio A Soria
Lung carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and has a high mortality. Recently, we showed that it produces neurological paraneoplastic syndrome, with Ilex paraguariensis (IP) extract exerting palliative effects due to its content of phenolic compounds. It is possible, therefore, that these diet agents can arrive at the brain and exert neuroprotection, after the oral intake of IP. Here, the aim was to investigate the protective role of bioavailable IP compounds on the telencephalon and diencephalon in lung adenocarcinoma-bearing BALB/cJ males...
February 6, 2019: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Dan He, Zhenli Liu, Menglei Wang, Yisong Shu, Siyu Zhao, Zhiqian Song, Hui Li, Linlin Liu, Wei Liang, Wen Li, Zhiwen Cao, Cheng Lu, Aiping Lu, Yuanyan Liu
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder characterized by joint destruction and bone damage. Methotrexate (MTX) is recommended as the first-line disease-modifying agent for the treatment of RA. However, the clinical efficacy of MTX is limited due to its low response and side effects, especially hepatotoxicity. Total phenolic extracts of Citrus aurantium L. (TPE-CA) are rich in dietary bioactive flavonoids, which show beneficial effects on liver health and are regarded as therapeutic tools against inflammatory diseases...
February 6, 2019: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Jing Yang, Yue Sun, Fanxing Xu, Weiwei Liu, Toshihiko Hayashi, Shunji Hattori, Yuko Ushiki-Kaku, Satoshi Onodera, Shin-Ichi Tashiro, Takashi Ikejima
Amylin and amyloid-β (Aβ) were found to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in rat pancreatic β-cell line, INS-1 cells, leading to cell death. In this study, we report on reciprocal relationship between the expression of estrogen receptors (ERs) α and β (ERα and ERβ) and generation of ROS/RNS in amylin/Aβ1-42 -treated INS-1 cells. That is, pharmacological activation of ERs in INS-1 cells significantly decreases ROS/RNS generation, but blockage of ERs increases ROS/RNS generation...
February 6, 2019: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Livan Delgado-Roche, Idania Rodeiro, Mario Riera, José Alfredo Herrera, Ivonilce Venturi, Yasnay Hernández, Gisselle Fernández, Carlos Luis Pérez, Juan Carlos Rodriguez, Miguel David Fernández, Ivones Hernández-Balmaseda, Julio Raul Fernández, Fernando Mesta, Miriam Teresa Paz
The protective effect of the supplementation with an aqueous-ethanolic extract obtained from Ulva lactuca (Delile) green seaweed on benzo[a] pyrene-induced damage in mice was evaluated. Animals were treated with oral doses of U. lactuca extract (100 and 400 mg/kg) for 9 weeks. They were exposed to 50 mg/kg of oral doses of benzo(a)pyrene starting from the second week and up to the fifth week. Groups treated with benzo(a)pyrene only (second to fifth weeks), sunflower oil (vehicle, 9 weeks), or U. lactuca extract (100 and 400 mg/kg, 9 weeks) were also included in the study...
February 6, 2019: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Giuseppe Derosa, Arrigo F G Cicero, Angela D'Angelo, Pamela Maffioli
The aim of this study was to evaluate a nutraceutical combination containing polyphenols extracted from Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus and chromium picolinate on glyemic status; secondary outcomes were considered the changes on endothelial markers. We randomized 65 dysglycemic patients to placebo or the nutraceutical agent for 6 months. We evaluated fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPG), HbA1c , fasting plasma insulin, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and adhesion molecules...
February 3, 2019: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Palloma de A S Hocayen, Etiele Wendler, Débora D Vecchia, Luiz K S Kanazawa, Ana Carolina Issy, Elaine Del Bel, Roberto Andreatini
Citrus fragrances have been used in aromatherapy for the treatment of anxiety, and the essential oil of Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) has shown promising results, although its mechanism of action was not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) neurotransmission in the anxiolytic-like effect of C. sinensis essential oil. Swiss male mice were submitted to 15 min of C. sinensis essential oil inhalation (1%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10%) and tested in the marble-burying test, neophobia-induced hypophagia, and light/dark test...
February 3, 2019: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Lingjian Zhang, Yalei Zhao, Linxiao Fan, Kai Xu, Feiyang Ji, Zhongyang Xie, Xiaoxi Ouyang, Daxian Wu, Lanjuan Li
Tectorigenin has received attention due to its antiproliferation, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. In this study, we investigated the effects of tectorigenin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine(D-GalN)-induced fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) in mice and LPS-stimulated macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells). Pretreatment with tectorigenin significantly reduced the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), histological injury, apoptosis, and the mortality of FHF mice, by suppressing the production of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6...
January 30, 2019: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Ziyan Wang, Keyong Fang, Guoqiang Wang, Xuewa Guan, Zhiqiang Pang, Yingqiao Guo, Yuze Yuan, Nan Ran, Yue Liu, Fang Wang
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory pulmonary disease characterized by continuous, progressive limitation of airflow. Airway remodelling, which is correlated with epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs), is a typical pathophysiological change of COPD. Amygdalin, an active ingredient in the traditional Chinese medicine bitter almond with extensive pharmacological effects, was shown to inhibit tissue fibrosis in recent studies. In this study, a human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) and mice were exposed to cigarette smoke, and EMT levels were investigated after treatment with different concentrations of amygdalin...
January 30, 2019: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
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