Schimmelpenning Syndrome with Large Nevus Sebaceous and Multiple Epidermal Nevi

Reiva Farah Dwiyana, Maryam Nissa Hazari, Inne Arline Diana, Srie Prihianti Gondokaryono, Raden Mohamad Rendy Ariezal Effendi, Hendra Gunawan
Case Reports in Dermatology 2020, 12 (3): 186-191
Epidermal nevus syndromes are a group of rare multiorgan disorders. Schimmelpenning syndrome is a clinical variant of epidermal nevus syndromes. This congenital syndrome is characterized by the existence of nevus sebaceous and usually accompanied by abnormalities of the eyes, skeletal, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems. A 2-year-old girl presented with large, hairless, yellowish-brown plaques on the scalp and face along with multiple brownish-black verrucose plaques and brownish-black macules on almost all parts of the body. The skin-colored verrucose tumors were also found on the lips and around the mouth. Histopathological examination of the lesion on the forehead revealed hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, and sebaceous gland hyperplasia supporting the diagnosis of nevus sebaceous, while histopathological examination of the lesions on the lips and abdomen demonstrated hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, and papillomatosis consistent with verrucous epidermal nevus. The pediatrician suspected that the patient had mental retardation; however, there were no neurological, cardiac, skeletal, nor ophthalmologic abnormalities. The lesions on the lips and around the mouth were excised, and it demonstrated a good result. To conclude, epidermal nevus syndrome (e.g., Schimmelpenning syndrome) should be considered in children born with nevus sebaceous.

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