Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of CT angiography for renal artery stenosis in children

Gunes Orman, Prakash M Masand, Kamlesh U Kukreja, Alisa A Acosta, R Paul Guillerman, Siddharth P Jadhav
Pediatric Radiology 2021, 51 (3): 419-426

BACKGROUND: Children with suspected renal artery stenosis (RAS) are screened with renal Doppler ultrasonography or computed tomography (CT) angiography/magnetic resonance (MR) angiography depending on institutional preference. CT angiography produces images with superior resolution, allowing higher quality multiplanar two-dimensional reformats and three-dimensional reconstructions. However, there is a paucity of data in the literature regarding the utility and diagnostic performance of renal CT angiography in pediatric RAS.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to retrospectively review our experience with renal CT angiography in the diagnosis of pediatric RAS relative to digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as the reference standard.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients 0-18 years of age who underwent CT angiography for evaluation of RAS as a cause of hypertension between January 2012 and May 2019 were identified for the study. A total of 131 patients were identified, 23 of whom had DSA correlation.

RESULTS: Twenty-three patients (17 boys, 6 girls) with a mean age of 6 years 3 months (range: 3 months to 14 years 7 months) were included in this study. Of the 59 renal arteries studied by DSA, 22 were abnormal on CT angiography and 20 were abnormal on DSA. Of the 59 renal arteries, CT angiography was true positive in 18 and true negative in 35. The sensitivity and specificity of CT angiography for RAS diagnosis were 90.0% and 89.7%, respectively. CT angiography identified all cases of main RAS.

CONCLUSION: Renal CT angiography has a high sensitivity and specificity for pediatric RAS diagnosis in patients referred for DSA.

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