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Pediatric Radiology

Alexis M Cahalane, Aoife Kilcoyne, Azadeh Tabari, Shaunagh McDermott, Michael S Gee
BACKGROUND: Differentiation of benign from malignant lymphadenopathy remains challenging in pediatric radiology. Textural analysis (TA) quantitates heterogeneity of tissue signal intensities and has been applied to analysis of CT images. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to establish whether CT textural analysis of enlarged lymph nodes visualized on pediatric CT can distinguish benign from malignant lymphadenopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified enlarged lymph nodes measuring 10-20 mm on contrast-enhanced CTs of patients age 18 years and younger that had been categorized as benign or malignant based on the known diagnoses...
February 11, 2019: Pediatric Radiology
James S Donaldson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2019: Pediatric Radiology
Bamidele F Kammen, Eric M Padua, S Pinar Karakas, R Ward Hagar, Dave M Hitt, Nirav K Pandya, Taylor Chung
BACKGROUND: Two-point modified Dixon (mDixon) turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence provides an efficient, robust method of fat suppression. In one mDixon acquisition, four image types can be generated: water-only, fat-only, in-phase and opposed-phase images. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether PD mDixon TSE water-only and, by proxy, PD in-phase images generated by one acquisition can replace two conventional PD TSE sequences with and without fat suppression in routine clinical MR examination of the knee...
February 6, 2019: Pediatric Radiology
Anton Flink Elmfors, Tuva Sandgren, Kaitlin Ford, Jarrett Rosenberg, Hans Ringertz, Richard A Barth, Erika Rubesova
BACKGROUND: Resistivity index (RI) of the pericallosal artery as is commonly measured during head ultrasound (US) examination in neonates. Some studies have shown that RI measured with gentle compression of the fontanelle provides additional information in cases of neonatal brain anomalies. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to establish normal RI values with and without compression in a large population of neonates with normal cranial ultrasound as a function of gestational age...
February 2, 2019: Pediatric Radiology
Anouk M Barendregt, E Charlotte van Gulik, Paul F C Groot, Koert M Dolman, J Merlijn van den Berg, Amara Nassar-Sheikh Rashid, Dieneke Schonenberg-Meinema, Cristina Lavini, Karen Rosendahl, Robert Hemke, Taco W Kuijpers, Mario Maas, Charlotte M Nusman
BACKGROUND: Post-contrast synovial thickness measurement is necessary for scoring disease activity in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). However, the timing of post-contrast sequences varies widely among institutions. This variation in timing could influence thickness measurements. OBJECTIVE: To measure thickness of the synovial membrane on early and late post-contrast knee magnetic resonance (MR) images of patients with JIA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted knee MR images of 53 children with JIA with current or past knee arthritis were used to study synovial thickness at time point 1 (about 1 min) and time point 2 (about 5 min after contrast administration)...
February 1, 2019: Pediatric Radiology
Savvas Andronikou, Mark Chopra, Simon Langton-Hewer, Pia Maier, Jon Green, Emma Norbury, Sarah Price, Mary Smail
This retrospective review of 33 children's dynamic 4-dimensional (4-D) computed tomography (CT) images of the airways, performed using volume scanning on a 320-detector array without anaesthesia (free-breathing) and 1.4-s continuous scanning, was undertaken to report technique, pitfalls, quality, radiation doses and findings. Tracheobronchomalacia (airway diameter collapse >28%) was recorded. Age-matched routine chest CT scans and bronchograms acted as benchmarks for comparing effective dose. Pitfalls included failure to administer intravenous contrast, pull back endotracheal tubes and/or remove nasogastric tubes...
January 25, 2019: Pediatric Radiology
Karl O Schneider, Katarina Lindemeyer, Birgit Kammer
BACKGROUND: The significance of intrarenal reflux as a risk factor for renal scarring and hypertension has been discussed. Fluoroscopic detection of intrarenal reflux depends on the equipment, the training of the radiologists and the timing of spot film acquisition. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of intrarenal reflux and its association with age, gender, grade of vesico-uretero-renal reflux and the renal segments affected. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 1,166 voiding cysturethrographies...
January 25, 2019: Pediatric Radiology
Larry A Binkovitz, Amy B Kolbe, Robert C Orth, Nadia F Mahmood, Prabin Thapa, Nathan C Hull, Paul G Thacker, Christopher Moir
In this article, the fourth author's name is misspelled. The correct spelling, as shown above, should be "Nadia F. Mahmood."
January 25, 2019: Pediatric Radiology
Takahiro Hosokawa, Yoshitake Yamada, Yutaka Tanami, Yumiko Sato, Tetsuya Ishimaru, Yujiro Tanaka, Hiroshi Kawashima, Eiji Oguma
BACKGROUND: Recently, it has been reported that anorectal malformation with rectourethral fistula in male neonates can be managed by primary neonatal reconstruction without colostomy. To prevent urethral injury during anorectoplasty, the fistula's location is important. To date, the use of voiding cystourethrograms to determine the presence and location of fistulas in neonates with anorectal malformations has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy of ultrasound (US) and voiding cystourethrogram for determining the presence and location of fistulas in neonates with anorectal malformation...
January 21, 2019: Pediatric Radiology
Kimberly A Dao, Sameh Tadros, Serena Chan, Pamela M Poremski, Judy H Squires
BACKGROUND: Changes that occur in the remaining ovary after contralateral oophorectomy are not well described. OBJECTIVE: To determine average ovarian volume in pediatric patients after contralateral oophorectomy compared to age-matched controls with two normal ovaries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of ultrasound examinations and electronic medical records of patients ages 0-18 years who had unilateral oophorectomy from 2000 to 2017 (n=64)...
January 17, 2019: Pediatric Radiology
Jordan B Rapp, Christian A Barrera, Victor M Ho-Fung
BACKGROUND: A closed degloving injury is often referred to as a Morel-Lavellée lesion regardless of location despite traditionally being associated with the hip in adults. It results from a shearing injury that separates the subcutaneous layers from the fascia with fluid filling a potential space. OBJECTIVE: While the most common location and cause have been described in adults, there is limited literature in pediatric patients. We have seen pediatric Morel-Lavellée lesions commonly occurring at the knee after sports...
January 17, 2019: Pediatric Radiology
Laureline Berteloot, Maïa Proisy, Jean-Philippe Jais, Marilyne Lévy, Nathalie Boddaert, Damien Bonnet, Francesca Raimondi
BACKGROUND: In children, idiopathic and heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension present echocardiographic and heart catheterization findings similar to findings in pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. OBJECTIVE: To provide a systematic analysis of CT angiography anomalies in children with idiopathic or heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension, or pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. We also sought to identify correlations between CT findings and patients' baseline characteristics...
January 16, 2019: Pediatric Radiology
Edward R Oliver, Suzanne E DeBari, Samantha E Adams, Ryne A Didier, Steven C Horii, Teresa Victoria, Holly L Hedrick, N Scott Adzick, Lori J Howell, Julie S Moldenhauer, Beverly G Coleman
BACKGROUND: The presence of a hernia sac in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) has been reported to be associated with higher lung volumes and better postnatal outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To compare prenatal imaging (ultrasound and MRI) prognostic measurements and postnatal outcomes of CDH with and without hernia sac. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed database searches from January 2008 to March 2017 for surgically proven cases of CDH with and without hernia sac...
January 11, 2019: Pediatric Radiology
Matthew S Lazarus, Benjamin H Taragin, William Malouf, Terry L Levin, Eduardo Nororis, Alan H Schoenfeld, Amichai J Erdfarb
BACKGROUND: Fluoroscopy time has been used as a surrogate for radiation dose monitoring in pediatric fluoroscopy; however it does not account for factors such as magnification or collimation. Dose-area product (DAP) is a more accurate measure of radiation exposure but its dependence on patient weight and body-part thickness is a challenge in children of varying ages. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether fluoroscopy time and DAP produce concurrent results when they are used to identify high-exposure cases, and to establish radiation dose thresholds for our institution...
January 10, 2019: Pediatric Radiology
Juliette Garel, Mathilde Lefebvre, Marie Cassart, Valeria Della Valle, Lucie Guilbaud, Jean-Marie Jouannic, Hubert Ducou le Pointe, Eléonore Blondiaux, Catherine Garel
BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited renal disease. This pathology has been increasingly diagnosed in utero and several sonographic patterns are well described in the literature. OBJECTIVE: To present a series of fetuses with an unusual imaging pattern of ADPKD, mimicking autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed second-line ultrasound (US) scans performed for suspicion of fetal kidney pathology between 2006 and 2018...
January 10, 2019: Pediatric Radiology
Sagar Wagle, Jeff T Gu, Jesse L Courtier, Andrew S Phelps, Clara Lin, John D MacKenzie
BACKGROUND: Optimized MRI parameters can be leveraged to improve signal intensity, accelerate imaging acquisition and increase resolution. Higher-resolution imaging with a small field of view (FOV) has been proposed as standard practice for investigating sacroiliac (SI) joints, but the improvement in disease detection and characterization over pelvic imaging with large FOV has not been established. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare dedicated MR images of the SI joints with survey imaging (large-FOV pelvic MRI) for detecting sacroiliitis...
January 8, 2019: Pediatric Radiology
Aaron J Lindsay, Jorge Delgado, Diego Jaramillo, Nancy A Chauvin
BACKGROUND: Osteomyelitis is a challenging diagnosis for clinicians, particularly in very young children. At our institution, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol in suspected osteomyelitis for children 5 years of age or younger includes a large field of imaging regardless of the clinical site of concern. OBJECTIVE: To determine if extended field of view (FOV) MRI contributes important information in young children with suspected osteomyelitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was performed including children 5 years of age or younger with suspected osteomyelitis from January 2011 to September 2015...
January 8, 2019: Pediatric Radiology
Elliot S Rinzler, Giridhar M Shivaram, Dennis W Shaw, Eric J Monroe, Kevin S H Koo
BACKGROUND: Image-guided percutaneous microwave ablation has been used to treat adult osteoid osteomas but has not been thoroughly evaluated in the pediatric population. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the technical feasibility and clinical efficacy of microwave ablation to treat osteoid osteomas in pediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The electronic medical record and imaging archive were reviewed for 24 consecutive patients who had undergone microwave ablation of osteoid osteomas between January 1, 2015, and May 31, 2018, at a single tertiary care pediatric hospital...
January 7, 2019: Pediatric Radiology
David M Biko, Breanne Reisen, Hansel J Otero, Chitra Ravishankar, Teresa Victoria, Andrew C Glatz, Jonathan J Rome, Yoav Dori
BACKGROUND: Children with Noonan syndrome are known to have increased risk for lymphatic disorders, the extent and nature of which are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to describe the imaging findings of the central lymphatic abnormalities in children with Noonan syndrome who underwent central lymphatic imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a single-center retrospective review of all children with a confirmed history of Noonan syndrome who presented for lymphatic imaging over a 5-year period...
January 6, 2019: Pediatric Radiology
Miguel Quintas-Neves, João Paulo Soares-Fernandes
Congenital cytomegalovirus infection is one of the most common congenital viral infections in the world. Brain magnetic resonance imaging plays a key role in evaluating brain involvement and establishing prognosis; several characteristic features have been described. We present a description of cerebellar cysts in a neonate with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed cytomegalovirus congenital infection, and discuss the differential diagnosis and potential pathophysiological mechanisms.
January 5, 2019: Pediatric Radiology
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