Sonographic assessment of kidneys in patients with hypertension co-existed with diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease

Moawia Gameraddin, Walaa Ismail Musa, Suzan Abdelmaboud, Sultan Alshoabi, Kamal Dahan Alsultan, Bushra A Abdelmalik
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care 2020, 9 (5): 2411-2415

Background: Hypertension is one of the major world health problems. Ultrasonography plays a useful role in the assessment of morphologicalchanges at the kidneys in hypertensive patients.

Aim: To assess sonographic findings of the kidneys in hypertensive patients' co-morbidities with type 2 diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease (IDH).

Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study involved 100 participants with primary hypertension selected by a method of simple convenient sampling. The patients were examined using ultrasonography to assess the sonographic findings of the kidneys. The renal length, corticomedullary differentiation (CMD), and renal artery diameters were assessed. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 23.0) was used in data analysis.

Results: The length of the right kidney was 8.9850 ± 1.01 cm and 9.48 ± 0.98 cm for the left kidney. Among the hypertensive patients, the incidence of hypertension was highest in housewives (27%) and students (23%) as compared with the other groups. The sonographic findings were 18% affected with simple renal cysts, 7% poor CMD, and the majority had normal kidneys. Significant correlation was found between age and sonographic findings of kidneys ( r = 0.21, P value = 0.033).

Conclusion: Simple renal cysts, poor CMD, and stenosis of renal arteries were most common sonographic findings in hypertension. Simple renal cystshad a significant association with hypertension.

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