Acute Kidney Injury in Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Shubhi Kaushik, Sindy Villacres, Ruth Eisenberg, Shivanand S Medar
Journal of Intensive Care Medicine 2020 July 27, : 885066620944042

OBJECTIVES: To describe the incidence of and risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI) in children with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and study the effect of AKI on patient outcomes.

DESIGN: A single-center retrospective study.

SETTING: A tertiary care children's hospital.

PATIENTS: All patients less than 18 years of age who received invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) and developed ARDS between July 2010 and July 2013 were included. Acute kidney injury was defined using p-RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage renal disease) criteria.


MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: One hundred fifteen children met the criteria and were included in the study. Seventy-four children (74/115, 64%) developed AKI. The severity of AKI was risk in 34 (46%) of 74, injury in 19 (26%) of 74, and failure in 21 (28%) of 74. The presence of AKI was associated with lower Pao 2 to Fio 2 (P/F) ratio ( P = .007), need for inotropes ( P = .003), need for diuretics ( P = .004), higher oxygenation index ( P = .03), higher positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP; P = .01), higher mean airway pressure ( P = .008), and higher Fio 2 requirement ( P = .03). Only PEEP and P/F ratios were significantly associated with AKI in the unadjusted logistic regression model. Patients with AKI had a significantly longer duration of hospital stay, although there was no significant difference in the intensive care unit stay, duration of MV, and mortality. Recovery of AKI occurred in 68% of the patients. A multivariable model including PEEP, P/F ratio, weight, need for inotropes, and need for diuretics had a better receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve with an AUC of 0.75 compared to the ROC curves for PEEP only and P/F ratio only for the prediction of AKI.

CONCLUSIONS: Patients with ARDS have high rates of AKI, and its presence is associated with increased morbidity and mortality.

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