JOURNAL ARTICLE

Anatomical conditions and patient-specific locked navigation templates for transverse sacroiliac screw placement: a retrospective study

Chao Wu, Jiayan Deng, Jian Pan, Tao Li, Lun Tan, Dechao Yuan
Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research 2020 July 13, 15 (1): 260
32660513

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the anatomical conditions of transverse sacroiliac screw (TSS) about the S1 and S2 segments in order to develop and validate a locked navigational template for TSS placement.

METHODS: A total of 22 patients with sacral fractures were involved in this study from May 2018 to February 2019. Patients were divided into two groups according to the surgery procedure: locked template group and conventional group. The CT data of 90 normal sacra were analysed. The long axis, short axis and lengths of TSS, cancellous corridors were measured through 3D modelling. A patient-specific locked navigation template based on simulated screws was designed and 3D printed and then used to assist in TSS placement. The operative time and radiation times were recorded. The Matta criteria and grading score were evaluated. The entry point deviation of the actual screw placement relative to the simulated screw placement was measured, and whether the whole screw was in the cancellous corridor was ob`served.

RESULTS: S1 screws with a diameter of 7.3 mm could be inserted into 69 pelvises, and S2 screws could be inserted in all pelvises. The S1 cancellous corridor had a long axis of 25.44 ± 3.32 mm in males and 22.91 ± 2.46 mm in females, a short axis of 14.21 ± 2.19 mm in males and 12.15 ± 3.22 mm in females, a corridor length of 153.07 ± 11.99 mm in males and 151.11 ± 8.73 mm in females, and a proportional position of the optimal entry point in the long axis of the cancellous corridor of 35.96 ± 10.31% in males and 33.28 ± 7.2% in females. There were significant differences in the corridor long axis and corridor short axis between sexes (p < 0.05), and there were no significant differences in corridor length and proportional position of the optimal entry point in the long axis of the cancellous corridor between sexes (p > 0.05). The S2 cancellous corridor had a long axis of 17.58 ± 2.36 mm in males and 16 ± 2.64 mm in females, a short axis of 14.21 ± 2.19 mm in males and 13.14 ± 2.2 mm in females, a corridor length of 129.95 ± 0.89 mm in males and 136.5 ± 7.96 mm in females, and a proportional position of the optimal entry point in the long axis of the cancellous corridor of 46.77 ± 9.02% in males and 42.25 ± 11.95% in females. There were significant differences in the long axis, short axis and corridor length (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the proportional position of the optimal entry point in the long axis of the cancellous corridor (p > 0.05). A total of 20 transversal sacroiliac screws were successfully implanted into 10 patients with the assistance of locked navigation templates, and a total of 24 transversal sacroiliac screws were successfully implanted into 12 patients under C-arm fluoroscopy. There was a significant difference in surgical time (88 ± 14.76 min vs 102.5 ± 17.12 min, p = 0.048), radiation times (11.5 ± 1.78 vs 54.83 ± 6.59, p < 0.05) and screw grading between two groups (nineteen screws in grade 0, one screw in grade 1 and 0 screws in grade 2 vs fourteen screws in grade 0, 8 screws in grade 1 and 2 screws in grade 2, p = 0.005). All screw entry point deviations were shorter than the short axis of the cancellous corridor, and all screws were located completely within the cancellous corridor.

CONCLUSION: Approximately 76% of males and females can accommodate screws with diameters of 7.3 mm in S1, and all persons can accommodate the same screw in S2. From the standard lateral perspective of the sacrum, the optimal entry point of the transverse screw is in the first 1/3 of the cancellous corridor for S1 and the centre of the cancellous corridor for S2. The patient-specific locked navigation template assisted in TSS placement with less operative time, less intraoperative fluoroscopy and higher safety of screw placement compared with traditional surgery.

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