Positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers for prostate cancer imaging

Stephanie M Walker, Ilhan Lim, Liza Lindenberg, Esther Mena, Peter L Choyke, Baris Turkbey
Abdominal Radiology 2020, 45 (7): 2165-2175
Imaging plays an increasing role in prostate cancer diagnosis and staging. Accurate staging of prostate cancer is required for optimal treatment planning. In detecting extraprostatic cancer and sites of early recurrence, traditional imaging methods (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, radionuclide bone scan) have suboptimal performance. This leaves a gap between known disease recurrence as indicated by rising prostate-specific antigen and the ability to localize the recurrence on imaging. Novel positron emission tomography (PET) agents including radiolabeled choline, fluciclovine (18 F-FACBC), and agents targeting prostate-specific membrane antigen are being developed and tested to increase diagnostic performance of non-invasive prostate cancer localization. When combined with CT or MRI, these tracers offer a combination of functional information and anatomic localization that is superior to conventional imaging methods. These PET radiotracers have varying mechanisms and excretion patterns affecting their pharmacokinetics and diagnostic performance, which will be reviewed in this article.

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