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Abdominal Radiology

Bhavana Budigi, Raymond B Dyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 16, 2019: Abdominal Radiology
Natally Horvat, Thomas A Hope, Perry J Pickhardt, Iva Petkovska
Rectal adenocarcinoma with mucinous components is an uncommon type of rectal cancer with two distinct histologic subtypes: mucinous adenocarcinoma and signet-ring cell carcinoma. Mucin can also be identified as pattern of response after neoadjuvant treatment. On imaging modalities, mucin typically demonstrates high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, low attenuation on computed tomography, and may be negative on 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. After neoadjuvant CRT, cellular and acellular mucin share similar imaging features, and differentiating them is currently the main challenge faced by radiologists...
April 16, 2019: Abdominal Radiology
Xueling Zhang, Liangcai Bai, Dan Wang, Xiaoyu Huang, Jinyan Wei, Wenjuan Zhang, Zhuoli Zhang, Junlin Zhou
PURPOSE: To examine the value of spectral CT quantitative parameters in gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) risk classification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. The requirement for informed consent was signed. The authors evaluated 86 patients (30 high risk, 22 medium risk, 28 low risk, and 6 very low risk; mean age: 59 years [range 19-83 years]) with pathologically confirmed GIST who underwent plain and triple-phase contrast-enhanced CT with spectral CT imaging mode from March 2015 through September 2017, with manual follow-up...
April 12, 2019: Abdominal Radiology
Laura Rozenblum, Fatima-Zohra Mokrane, Randy Yeh, Mathieu Sinigaglia, Florent Besson, Romain-David Seban, Cecile N Chougnet, Paul Revel-Mouroz, Binsheng Zhao, Philippe Otal, Lawrence H Schwartz, Laurent Dercle
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are rare neoplasms that secrete peptides and neuro-amines. pNETs can be sporadic or hereditary, syndromic or non-syndromic with different clinical presentations and prognoses. The role of medical imaging includes locating the tumor, assessing its extent, and evaluating the feasibility of curative surgery or cytoreduction. Pancreatic NETs have very distinctive phenotypes on CT, MRI, and PET. PET have been demonstrated to be very sensitive to detect either well-differentiated pNETs using 68 Gallium somatostatin receptor (SSTR) radiotracers, or more aggressive undifferentiated pNETS using 18 F-FDG...
April 12, 2019: Abdominal Radiology
Peter M Graffy, Jiamin Liu, Stacy O'Connor, Ronald M Summers, Perry J Pickhardt
OBJECTIVE: To investigate an automated aortic calcium segmentation and scoring tool at abdominal CT in an adult screening cohort. METHODS: Using instance segmentation with convolutional neural networks (Mask R-CNN), a fully automated vascular calcification algorithm was applied to a data set of 9914 non-contrast CT scans from 9032 consecutive asymptomatic adults (mean age, 57.5 ± 7.8 years; 4467 M/5447F) undergoing colonography screening. Follow-up scans were performed in a subset of 866 individuals (mean interval, 5...
April 11, 2019: Abdominal Radiology
David Livingston, Celin Rajan, J Mark McKinney, Shweta Bhatt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2019: Abdominal Radiology
Ariel Botwin, Teerasak Phewplung, Kaiming Wu, Ruth Lim, Avram Z Traum, Michael S Gee
PURPOSE: To determine the clinical significance of incidentally discovered renal cysts in pediatric patients and identify imaging predictors of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). METHODS: A retrospective search of radiology reports from 2000 to 2016 was performed to identify patients < 18 years old with an imaging exam identifying at least one renal cyst and a ≥ 1-year follow-up renal imaging exam for cyst evaluation and/or diagnosis of ADPKD...
April 10, 2019: Abdominal Radiology
Andrew B Rosenkrantz, Krishna P Shanbhogue, Richard Duszak
PURPOSE: To assess subspecialty mix and case volumes of general and abdominal subspecialty radiologists interpreting abdominal MRI. METHODS: The 2016 CMS Physician/Supplier Procedure Summary Master File was used to obtain billed counts of radiologist-interpreted abdominal fluoroscopy, US, CT, and MRI examinations. The CMS Physician and Other Supplier Public Use File was used to assess the subspecialty mix and case volume of the radiologists interpreting those examinations...
April 9, 2019: Abdominal Radiology
Venkatraman Indiran, Jagannathan Kokilavani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 9, 2019: Abdominal Radiology
Priyanka Jha, Joseph Rabban, Lee-May Chen, Ruth B Goldstein, Stefanie Weinstein, Tara A Morgan, Dorothy Shum, Nancy Hills, Michael A Ohliger, Liina Poder
PURPOSE: To evaluate correlation of "placental bulge sign" with myometrial invasion in placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) disorders. Placental bulge is defined as deviation of external uterine contour from expected plane caused by abnormal outward bulge of placental tissue. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this IRB-approved, retrospective study, all patients undergoing MRI for PAS disorders between March 2014 and 2018 were included. Patients who delivered elsewhere were excluded...
April 9, 2019: Abdominal Radiology
Thomas E Pendergrast, Raymond B Dyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 9, 2019: Abdominal Radiology
Yu-Fei Fu, Wen-Jie Zhou, Yi-Bing Shi, Wei Cao, Chi Cao
PURPOSE: To compare the clinical outcomes between unilateral and bilateral metal stenting for patients with malignant hilar biliary obstruction (MHO). METHODS: This is a single-center, open-label, prospective, randomized study. Between January 2016 and March 2018, patients with MHO who were treated by percutaneous unilateral or bilateral metal stenting were enrolled. The primary endpoint was stent dysfunction. The secondary endpoints included technical success, clinical success, adverse events, and death...
April 9, 2019: Abdominal Radiology
Mohammad Abd Alkhalik Basha, Maged Abdel Galil Hamed, Omar Hussein, Tarek El-Diasty, Yasser Ibrahim Abdelkhalek, Yehia Omar Hussein, Ahmed Fathy Alasamer, Heba A E Mohamed, Dalia Salah El Deen, Engy Fathy Tantawy, Maha Ibrahim Metwally, Mohamed M A Zaitoun, Sameh Abdelaziz Aly, Jehan Ibrahim Altohamy, Abd El Motaleb Mohamed, Amira Hamed Mohamed Afifi, Ola Harb
PURPOSE: To determine the diagnostic sensitivity and interobserver agreement of Gallium 68-prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography/computed tomography (68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT) imaging for diagnosis and staging of patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer (PC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and seventy-three men (mean age, 68 ± 7.7 years; range 46-84 years) with newly diagnosed, untreated PC were enrolled in this prospective study between January 2017 and August 2018...
April 8, 2019: Abdominal Radiology
Aritrick Chatterjee, Alexander J Gallan, Dianning He, Xiaobing Fan, Devkumar Mustafi, Ambereen Yousuf, Tatjana Antic, Gregory S Karczmar, Aytekin Oto
PURPOSE: This study investigates the multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) appearance of different types of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and whether quantitative mpMRI is effective in differentiating between prostate cancer (PCa) and BPH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients (n = 60) with confirmed PCa underwent preoperative 3T MRI. T2-weighted, multi-echo T2-weighted, diffusion weighted and dynamic contrast enhanced images (DCE) were obtained prior to undergoing prostatectomy...
April 6, 2019: Abdominal Radiology
Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel Razek, Elsayed Elfar, Shefeek Abubacker
AIM: To assess the interobserver agreement of computed tomography (CT) reporting standards for chronic pancreatitis (CP). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of CT of 47 patients (33 males and 11 females, age range 36 to 56 years) with CP who presented with abdominal pain (n = 41), steatorrhea (n = 37), and glucose intolerance (n = 31). The patients underwent CT study using a 16-multidetector CT scanner with a pancreatic protocol including a nonenhanced scan followed by pancreatic phase at 35 s and portal venous phase at 65 s after intravenous injection of nonionic contrast medium...
April 6, 2019: Abdominal Radiology
Cathryn L Hui, Zhen Jiang Lee
OBJECTIVE: To describe the MRI findings of the effects of exogenous sex steroids on the liver. FINDINGS: Estrogens, progesterone and synthetic testosterone are exogenous sex steroids that may result in a variety of liver diseases, including tumour formation and vascular disorders. These hormones are mainly administered in the form of the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) and anabolic steroids. Both are implicated in hepatic adenoma formation. The HNF-1α-mutated and inflammatory adenoma subgroups are more commonly seen in association with the OCP whereas there is an increased incidence of the β-catenin positive subtype with anabolic steroid use...
April 6, 2019: Abdominal Radiology
S C Faria, S B Elsherif, T Sagebiel, V Cox, B Rao, C Lall, P R Bhosale
PURPOSE: To review the pertinent anatomy and the imaging features of common and uncommon benign and malignant neoplasms and masses of the ischiorectal fossa. RESULTS: The ischiorectal or ischioanal fossa is the largest space in the anorectal region. The benign neoplasms that develop in the ischiorectal originate from the different components that forms the fossa including vascular tumors such as aggressive angiomyxoma or hemangioma; neural tumors as plexiform neurofibroma or schwannoma; fat tumors as lipoma; skin/skin appendages tumors as hidradenoma papilliferum; smooth or skeletal muscle tumors as solitary fibrous tumor...
April 6, 2019: Abdominal Radiology
Thomas W K Battey, David Dreizin, Uttam K Bodanapally, Amelia Wnorowski, Ghada Issa, Anthony Iacco, William Chiu
PURPOSE: To compare the utility of abdominopelvic fluid volume measurements with established computed tomography signs for refractory post-traumatic abdominal compartment syndrome. METHODS: This retrospective observational cohort study included 64 consecutive adult trauma patients with preoperative CT and diagnosis of refractory abdominal compartment syndrome requiring decompressive laparotomy at a level I trauma referral center between 2004 and 2014. We hypothesized that abdominal fluid volume measurements would be more predictive of the need for early laparotomy than previously described conventional CT signs of refractory ACS...
April 5, 2019: Abdominal Radiology
Dhakshinamoorthy Ganeshan, Stephanie Nougaret, Elena Korngold, Gaiane M Rauch, Courtney C Moreno
Despite advances in surgical techniques and chemoradiation therapy, recurrent rectal cancer remains a cause of morbidity and mortality. After successful treatment of rectal cancer, patients are typically enrolled in a surveillance strategy that includes imaging as studies have shown improved prognosis when recurrent rectal cancer is detected during imaging surveillance versus based on development of symptoms. Additionally, patients who experience a complete clinical response with chemoradiation therapy may elect to enroll in a "watch-and-wait" strategy that includes imaging surveillance rather than surgical resection...
April 5, 2019: Abdominal Radiology
Edwin A Takahashi, Naoki Takahashi, Christopher J Reisenauer, Michael R Moynagh, Sanjay Misra
PURPOSE: To determine the effects of left gastric artery embolization (LGAE) on computed tomography (CT) body composition change. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen overweight or obese patients who had abdominal CT scans before and after LGAE for gastric bleeding were retrospectively reviewed. Body composition analysis was performed with semiautomated imaging processing algorithms (MATLAB 13.0, Math Works, MA). Adipose tissue and lean skeletal muscle were measured using threshold attenuation values...
April 4, 2019: Abdominal Radiology
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