SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
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Cells Involved in Urethral Tissue Engineering: Systematic Review.

The urethra is part of the lower urinary tract and its main role is urine voiding. Its complex histological structure makes urethral tissue prone to various injuries with complicated healing processes that often lead to scar formation. Urethral stricture disease can affect both men and women. The occurrence of this pathology is more common in men and thus are previous research has been mainly oriented on male urethra reconstruction. However, commonly used surgical techniques show unsatisfactory results because of complications. The new and progressively developing field of tissue engineering offers promising solutions, which could be applied in the urethral regeneration of both men´s and women´s urethras. The presented systematic review article offers an overview of the cells that have been used in urethral tissue engineering so far. Urine-derived stem cells show a great perspective in respect to urethral tissue engineering. They can be easily harvested and are a promising autologous cell source for the needs of tissue engineering techniques. The presented review also shows the importance of mechanical stimuli application on maturating tissue. Sufficient vascularization and elimination of stricture formation present the biggest challenges not only in customary surgical management but also in tissue-engineering approaches.

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