Vitamin D Receptor Genetic Variation and Cancer Biomarkers among Breast Cancer Patients Supplemented with Vitamin D3: A Single-Arm Non-Randomized Before and After Trial

Elham Kazemian, Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari, Nariman Moradi, Safoora Gharibzadeh, Alison M Mondul, Yasaman Jamshidi-Naeini, Maryam Khademolmele, Katie R Zarins, Nasim Ghodoosi, Atieh Amouzegar, Sayed Hossein Davoodi, Laura S Rozek
Nutrients 2019 June 4, 11 (6)
We investigated whether vitamin D receptor ( VDR ) polymorphisms were associated with cancer biomarkers, i.e., E-cadherin, matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), interferon β (IFNβ), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (s-ICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (s-VCAM-1), tumor necrosis factorα (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL6), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1(PAI-1), and human high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), among breast cancer survivors who received vitamin D3 supplementation. In a single-arm non-randomized pre- and post trial, 176 breast cancer survivors who had completed treatment protocol including surgery, radio and chemotherapy were enrolled in the study and received 4000 IU of vitamin D3 daily for 12 weeks. The association between the VDR SNPs ( ApaI , TaqI , FokI , BsmI and Cdx2 ) and response variable changes was assessed using linear regression, utilizing the "association" function in the R package "SNPassoc". We observed that women with AA and GA [codominant model (AA compared to GG) and (GA compared to GG); dominant model (AA & GA compared to GG)] genotypes of Cdx2 showed higher increase in plasma MMP9 levels compared to the GG category. In addition, carriers of BsmI bb showed greater decrease in circulating TNFα levels after vitamin D3 supplementation [recessive model (bb compared to BB & Bb]. Likewise, significant associations were identified between haplotypes of VDR polymorphisms and on-study plasma MMP9 changes. However, our results indicate that VDR genetic polymorphisms were not associated with longitudinal changes in the remaining cancer biomarkers. Overall, our findings suggest that changes in certain inflammatory biomarkers in breast cancer survivors with low plasma 25(OH)D levels, supplemented with vitamin D3, may depend on VDR SNPs and haplotypes.

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