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Ayelet Armon-Omer, Chen Waldman, Naaem Simaan, Hadar Neuman, Snait Tamir, Radi Shahien
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a multifactorial disease with unknown etiology. It is assumed to result from interplay between genetic and environmental factors, including nutrition. We hypothesized that there are differences in nutritional parameters between MS patients and healthy controls. METHODS: We examined 63 MS patients and 83 healthy controls. Nutritional status was determined by a dietary questionnaire, blood tests, quantification of cell membrane fatty acids, and serum antioxidant capacity...
February 18, 2019: Nutrients
Geum-Hwa Lee, Hwa-Young Lee, Sun-Ah Park, Tai-Sun Shin, Han-Jung Chae
The recent discovery that the impairment of autophagic flux in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) might be a strong determining factor in steatosis suggests the potential of therapeutic control of autophagic flux with natural agents in restoring NAFLD. We investigated the potential of Eucommia ulmoides leaf extract (EUL) to control dyslipidemia in NAFLD. EUL supplementation (200 mg/kg) promoted recovery from high fat diet (HFD)-induced lipid dysmetabolism. This hepatoprotective efficacy was accompanied by suppression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, enhancing lysosomal functions, and thereby increasing autophagic flux...
February 18, 2019: Nutrients
Alicia Costa, Silvia Carrión, Marc Puig-Pey, Fabiola Juárez, Pere Clavé
BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) and malnutrition are highly prevalent in older patients that are discharged from general hospitals (47% and 30%, respectively). AIMS: To develop a nutritional plan for these patients involving a triple adaptation of their traditional diet: (a) rheological adaptation (texture and viscosity) for safe deglutition, (b) nutritional adaptation (water, calories, and proteins), and (c) organoleptic adaptation to improve compliance...
February 18, 2019: Nutrients
M Hasan Mohajeri
In the last decade, the microbiome in general and the gut microbiome in particular have been associated not only to brain development and function, but also to the pathophysiology of brain aging and to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), depression, or multiple sclerosis (MS) [...].
February 18, 2019: Nutrients
Lina Zgaga, Eamon Laird, Martin Healy
Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated in numerous human diseases leading to an increased interest in assessing vitamin D status. Consequentially, the number of requests for vitamin D measurement keeps dramatically increasing year-on-year. Currently, the recognised best marker of vitamin D status is the concentration of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D₃) in the blood circulation. While providing an accurate estimate of vitamin D status at the point in time of sampling, it cannot account for the high variability of 25(OH)D₃ concentration...
February 18, 2019: Nutrients
Luigi Palla, Suzana Almoosawi
Mounting evidence points towards the existence of an association between energy intake in the evening and an increased prevalence and risk of being overweight and of obesity. The present study aimed to describe diurnal eating patterns (DEP) in a nationally representative sample of UK adolescents and to relate the derived DEP to anthropometrical measures. Data from four-day food records of adolescents aged 11⁻18 years participating in the 2008⁻2012 UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme (NDNS RP) was utilised...
February 17, 2019: Nutrients
Paolo Benincasa, Beatrice Falcinelli, Stanley Lutts, Fabio Stagnari, Angelica Galieni
In the last decade, there has been an increase in the use of sprouted grains in human diet and a parallel increase in the scientific literature dealing with their nutritional traits and phytochemical contents. This review examines the physiological and biochemical changes during the germination process, and the effects on final sprout composition in terms of macro- and micro-nutrients and bioactive compounds. The main factors affecting sprout composition are taken into consideration: genotype, environmental conditions experimented by the mother plant, germination conditions...
February 17, 2019: Nutrients
Martin N Mwangi, Elizabeth Echoka, Marthe Knijff, Lydia Kaduka, Brenda G Werema, Frida M Kinya, Richard Mutisya, Erastus M Muniu, Ayşe Y Demir, Hans Verhoef, Raphaelle Bourdet-Sicard
Serum ferritin concentration is the preferred biomarker to assess population iron status in the absence of inflammation. Interpretation of this biomarker is complicated in populations with a high burden of infection, however, because inflammation increases serum ferritin concentration independently of iron status. We aimed to compare estimates of iron status of Kenyan pregnant women, with circulating ferritin concentrations adjusted for inflammation using newly proposed methods by the BRINDA project, or using previously proposed adjustment methods...
February 16, 2019: Nutrients
Veronica Luque, Albert Feliu, Joaquín Escribano, Natalia Ferré, Gemma Flores, Raquel Monné, Desirée Gutiérrez-Marín, Núria Guillen, Judit Muñoz-Hernando, Marta Zaragoza-Jordana, Mariona Gispert-Llauradó, Carme Rubio-Torrents, Mercè Núñez-Roig, Mireia Alcázar, Raimon Ferré, Josep M Basora, Pablo Hsu, Clara Alegret-Basora, Francesc Arasa, Michelle Venables, Priya Singh, Ricardo Closa-Monasterolo
The primary aim of the Obemat2.0 trial was to evaluate the efficacy of a multicomponent motivational program for the treatment of childhood obesity, coordinated between primary care and hospital specialized services, compared to the usual intervention performed in primary care. This was a cluster randomized clinical trial conducted in Spain, with two intervention arms: motivational intervention group vs. usual care group (as control), including 167 participants in each. The motivational intervention consisted of motivational interviewing, educational materials, use of an eHealth physical activity monitor and three group-based sessions...
February 16, 2019: Nutrients
Nijiati Abulizi, Candice Quin, Kirsty Brown, Yee Kwan Chan, Sandeep K Gill, Deanna L Gibson
The dynamics of the tripartite relationship between the host, gut bacteria and diet in the gut is relatively unknown. An imbalance between harmful and protective gut bacteria, termed dysbiosis, has been linked to many diseases and has most often been attributed to high-fat dietary intake. However, we recently clarified that the type of fat, not calories, were important in the development of murine colitis. To further understand the host-microbe dynamic in response to dietary lipids, we fed mice isocaloric high-fat diets containing either milk fat, corn oil or olive oil and performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the colon microbiome and mass spectrometry-based relative quantification of the colonic metaproteome...
February 16, 2019: Nutrients
Janina Rynarzewski, Lisa Dicks, Benno F Zimmermann, Birgit Stoffel-Wagner, Norbert Ludwig, Hans-Peter Helfrich, Sabine Ellinger
Randomized controlled trials indicate that flavanol-rich cocoa intake may improve postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), based on studies with meals that impose a strong metabolic load. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether flavanol-rich cocoa powder ingested as part of a diabetic-suitable meal may beneficially affect glucose, lipid metabolism, and blood pressure (BP) in patients with T2D. Twelve adults with T2D, overweight/obesity, and hypertension ingested capsules with 2...
February 16, 2019: Nutrients
Marilyn C Cornelis
Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and is also a major source of caffeine for most populations [...].
February 16, 2019: Nutrients
Felicity Curtain, Sara Grafenauer
The Australian front-of-pack labelling system, Health Star Rating (HSR), does not include whole grain (WG) in its algorithm, but uses dietary fibre (DF), despite Dietary Guidelines recommending WG over refined grain (RG) foods. This study aimed to determine how effectively HSR differentiates WG and RG foods. Product label data were collected 2017⁻18 from bread, rice, pasta, noodles, flour and breakfast cereals ( n = 1127). Products not displaying HSR, DF per 100 g, and %WG ingredients were excluded, leaving a sample of 441 products; 68% were WG (≥8 g/manufacturer serving)...
February 15, 2019: Nutrients
Helena Rolandsdotter, Kerstin Jönsson-Videsäter, Ulrika L Fagerberg, Yigael Finkel, Michael Eberhardson
Exclusive Enteral Nutrition (EEN) is the first-line treatment in children with Crohn's disease (CD) for induction of remission. However, the mode of action remains conjectural. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the effect of EEN is paralleled by changes in the mucosal cytokine profiles (MCP). Twelve children with new onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) received induction treatment with a polymeric EEN. We assessed clinical, endoscopic and histologic scoring before and after EEN. Twelve colonic cytokines were analyzed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in six of the IBD patients at onset and after EEN as well as in six non-IBD control children at the diagnostic colonoscopy...
February 15, 2019: Nutrients
Xiaofeng Wang, Xiaoming Lou, Zhe Mo, Mingluan Xing, Guangming Mao, Wenming Zhu, Yuanyang Wang, Yuan Chen, Zhifang Wang
BACKGROUND: Iodine deficiency in pregnant women, defined as a median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of less than 150 μg/L, is an important public health issue. To improve their iodine intake, it is important to understand the knowledge and practices regarding iodine. METHODS: A cross-sectional investigation was conducted on 2642 pregnant women during 2016⁻2017 in Zhejiang province, China. A 3-point Likert scale questionnaire was used to record knowledge. The UIC and iodine content in household salt were determined...
February 15, 2019: Nutrients
Abu Bakar Siddique, Hassan Y Ebrahim, Mohamed R Akl, Nehad M Ayoub, Amira A Goda, Mohamed M Mohyeldin, Suresh K Nagumalli, Wael M Hananeh, Yong-Yu Liu, Sharon A Meyer, Khalid A El Sayed
Dysregulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2) family is a hallmark of aggressive breast cancer. Small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors are among the most effective cancer targeted treatments. (-)-Oleocanthal (OC) is a naturally occurring phenolic secoiridoid lead from extra-virgin olive oil with documented anti-cancer activities via targeting mesenchymal epithelial transition factor (c-Met). Dysregulation of c-Met promotes aggressiveness to breast cancer-targeted therapies...
February 15, 2019: Nutrients
Pelin Kaya, Sang R Lee, Young Ho Lee, Sun Woo Kwon, Hyun Yang, Hye Won Lee, Eui-Ju Hong
Curcumae radix is the dry root of Curcuma longa L. (turmeric) that can be used either as a spice or traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the survival benefits and the anti-metastatic activity of curcumae radix extract (CRE) in MCF7 cells and in MMTV-PyMT transgenic mice-a mouse model of breast cancer metastasis. In vitro wound scratch assay revealed that CRE treatment inhibited cell motility and cell migration in a dose-dependent manner. To investigate the effect of CRE in breast cancer metastasis, MMTV-PyMT transgenic female virgin mice were used and randomly divided into two groups...
February 15, 2019: Nutrients
Beatriz Franco-Arellano, Min Ah Kim, Stefanie Vandevijvere, Jodi T Bernstein, Marie-Ève Labonté, Christine Mulligan, Mary R L'Abbé
Canadians' food purchases consist largely of packaged processed and ultra-processed products, which typically fall outside the "core" foods recommended by Canada's Food Guide (CFG). Almost half of packaged products in Canada carry nutrition marketing (i.e., nutrient content and health claims). This study assessed whether packaged foods carrying nutrition marketing align with recommendations outlined in the 2007 CFG. Label data ( n = 9376) were extracted from the 2013 Food Label Information Program (FLIP)...
February 15, 2019: Nutrients
John Adulcikas, Sabrina Sonda, Shaghayegh Norouzi, Sukhwinder Singh Sohal, Stephen Myers
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a disease associated with dysfunctional metabolic processes that lead to abnormally high levels of blood glucose. Preceding the development of T2DM is insulin resistance (IR), a disorder associated with suppressed or delayed responses to insulin. The effects of this response are predominately mediated through aberrant cell signalling processes and compromised glucose uptake into peripheral tissue including adipose, liver and skeletal muscle. Moreover, a major factor considered to be the cause of IR is endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress...
February 15, 2019: Nutrients
Niala den Braber, Miriam M R Vollenbroek-Hutten, Milou M Oosterwijk, Christina M Gant, Ilse J M Hagedoorn, Bert-Jan F van Beijnum, Hermie J Hermens, Gozewijn D Laverman
Adherence to a healthy diet and regular physical activity are two important factors in sufficient type 2 diabetes mellitus management. It is recognized that the traditional treatment of outpatients does not meet the requirements for sufficient lifestyle management. It is hypothesised that a personalized diabetes management mHealth application can help. Such an application ideally measures food intake, physical activity, glucose values, and medication use, and then integrates this to provide patients and healthcare professionals insight in these factors, as well as the effect of lifestyle on glucose values in daily life...
February 15, 2019: Nutrients
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