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Induction of two independent immunological cell death signaling following hemoglobinuria -induced acute kidney injury: In vivo study

Rana Dizaji, Ali Sharafi, Jalal Pourahmad, Mohammad-Amin Abdollahifar, Hossein Vatanpour, Mir-Jamal Hosseini
Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology 2019 March 16
The main important clinical signs in acute kidney injury (AKI) after sever Hemiscorpius lepturus envenomation in patients is associated with proteinuria, hemolysis and hemoglobinuria. Unfortunately, our limited knowledge of molecular cell death mechanism in H. lepturus induced AKI restricts the development of desirable therapeutics. So, in the present study, the potential role of necroptosis and ferroptosis in H. lepturus induced AKI were investigated in male albino mice. The animals were administrated by SC injection of venom (1, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg) based on LD50 determination. After 1 and 7 days, urinalysis, stereological assessments and gene expression of Ngal, Tnf-α, Tlr-4, Ripk3, Mlkl and Acsl4 were evaluated by real time PCR. Our data revealed that upregulation of renal Ngal expression is associated with the gene over expression of Tnf-α, Tlr-4, Ripk3 and Mlkl in venom treated kidneys. We observed that the Malondialdehyde (MDA) level was increased in dose-dependent manner similar to Acsl4 gene over expression suggesting a main role of ferroptosis in hemoglobinuria mediated AKI following envenomation. Moreover, transcriptional enhancement of Tlr-4and Tnf-α receptor can cause phosphorylation of Ripk3-Mlkl complex, collapse of membrane potential and DAMPs release which intensified the inflammation cytokines in kidney. Taken together, it supposes co-existence of two separate pathways of regulated necrosis and inflammatory environment provides a promising outlook in prevention and management of hemoglobinuria induced AKI following envenomation in clinical practice.


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