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Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/31402191/structural-and-functional-characterization-of-toxic-peptides-purified-from-the-venom-of-the-colombian-scorpion-tityus-macrochirus
#1
Clara Andrea Rincón-Cortés, Timoteo Olamendi-Portugal, Edson Norberto Carcamo-Noriega, Edmundo González Santillán, Fernando Zamudio Zuñiga, Edgar Antonio Reyes-Montaño, Nohora Angélica Vega Castro, Lourival Domingos Possani
The soluble venom of the scorpion Tityus macrochirus was separated by chromatographic procedures and three homogeneous peptides were obtained and their primary structures were determined. They were called: Tma1-Tma3, from the abbreviated name of the scorpion. Tma1 is a peptide containing 65 amino acids with four disulfide linkages and a molecular weight of 7386.2 Da. It is a mammalian toxin, shown to affect human sodium-channels sub-types hNav1.6 and hNav1.4. Tma2 and Tma3 are peptides containing 69 amino acids linked by four disulfide bonds, molecular weights 7819...
August 8, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31356822/ameliorative-effect-of-ursolic-acid-on-ochratoxin-a-induced-renal-cytotoxicity-mediated-by-lonp1-aco2-hsp75
#2
Chen Li, Wenying Chen, Lirong Zheng, Boyang Zhang, Xuqin Yang, Qipeng Zhang, Ning Wang, Yan Wang, Jieyeqi Yang, Jingzhou Sha, Zheng Zhou, Xiaohong Li, Yuzhe Li, Xiao Li Shen
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin ubiquitous in feeds and foodstuffs. The water-insoluble pentacyclic triterpene bioactive compound, ursolic acid (UA), is widespread in various cuticular waxes of edible fruits, food materials, and medicinal plants. Although studies have reported that oxidative stress was involved in both the nephrotoxicity of OTA and the renoprotective function of UA, the role of stress-responsive Lon protease 1 (Lonp1) in the renoprotection of UA against OTA is still unknown. In this study, cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and several proteins' expressions of human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK293T) cells in response to UA, OTA, and/or Lonp1 inhibitor CDDO-me treatment were detected to reveal the protective mechanism of UA against OTA-induced renal cytotoxicity...
July 26, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31352010/analysis-of-venom-sac-constituents-from-the-solitary-hunting-wasp-cerceris-rybyensis
#3
Sachin Kote, Jakub Faktor, Irena Dapic, Marcos Yebenes Mayordomo, Mikołaj Kocikowski, Alexander Kagansky, David Goodlett, Borivoj Vojtesek, Ted Hupp, David Wilcockson, Ross Piper
Solitary hunting wasps are abundant and diverse hymenopteran insects that disable prey using venom. The venom may possess neuromodulation, immunomodulatory, metabolic-modulatory and antimicrobial functions. Venom analysis using transcriptome or mass spectrometry has been previously performed in social and parasitoid wasp species. We develop methodologies including mass spectrometry to analyse the protein constituents from venom sacs of the solitary wasp Cerceris rybyensis. The venom sac constituents of C. rybyensis are discussed with respect to other wasp species...
July 25, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31351085/botulinum-toxin-and-occupational-therapy-for-writer-s-cramp
#4
Jung E Park, Ejaz A Shamim, Pattamon Panyakaew, Pawan Mathew, Camilo Toro, Jonathan Sackett, Barbara Karp, Codrin Lungu, Katharine Alter, Tianxia Wu, Omar F Ahmad, Monica Villegas, Sungyoung Auh, Mark Hallett
BACKGROUND: Writer's cramp (WC) is a form of focal hand dystonia, for which focal botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injections are the current best therapy. Past studies have shown that some types of rehabilitative therapy can be useful. We hypothesized that BoNT together with a specific type of occupational therapy would be better than BoNT alone for treating WC patients comparing the effects with a patient-rated subjective scale. METHODS: Twelve WC patients were randomized to two groups...
July 24, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31348933/sri-lankan-green-pit-viper-trimeresurus-trigonocephalus-bites-in-deniyaya-a-clinico-epidemiological-study
#5
E W R A Witharana, A Gnanathasan, A S Dissanayake, S K J Wijesinghe, S C L Kadahetti, R M J K Rajapaksha
Green pit viper (Trimeresurus trigonocephalus) is endemic to Sri Lanka and bites are reported from tropical rain forest and plantation areas. As scant data exists on clinico-epidemiological features of Sri Lankan green pit viper bite, objective of this study was to address this knowledge gap. A prospective observational study was conducted in Base Hospital Deniyaya from October 2013 to September 2015. Green pit viper as the offending snake was identified when the victims brought live or dead specimens. When the specimen was not available, green pit viper was identified by the victim pointing to preserved specimens and photographs of green pit viper and different similar appearing snakes...
July 23, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31331710/-corrigendum-to-concentrations-of-microcystins-in-the-muscle-and-liver-tissues-of-fish-species-from-koka-reservoir-ethiopia-a-potential-threat-to-public-health-toxicon-153-2018-85-95
#6
Tigist W Zewde, Jostein A Johansen, Demeke Kifle, Taye B Demissie, Jørn H Hansen, Zenebe Tadesse
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31330193/metabolism-of-the-neurotoxic-amino-acid-%C3%AE-n-methylamino-l-alanine-in-human-cell-culture-models
#7
Simoné Downing, Rianita Van Onselen, Gabré Kemp, Timothy Grant Downing
Human dietary exposure to the environmental neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been implicated in an increased risk of developing sporadic neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Evidence suggests that humans are exposed to BMAA globally, but very little is known about BMAA metabolism in mammalian systems, let alone in humans. The most plausible, evidence-based mechanisms of BMAA toxicity rely on the metabolic stability of the amino acid and that, following ingestion, it enters the circulatory system unmodified...
July 19, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31330192/acute-fatal-poisoning-by-spontaneous-ingestion-of-enterolobium-contortisiliquum-mimosidae-pods-in-horses
#8
Mizael Machado, Marina Pacheco Miguel, Juliano Pereira Terra, Jair Alves Ferreira, Franklin Riet-Correa, Márcio Botelho de Castro
An outbreak of acute poisoning of horses by Enterolobium contortisiliquum pods is reported in the state of Goiás, Brazil. Three horses presented apathy, hyporexia, prostration, jaundice, recumbency and died in 24-48 hours. The main pathological findings were a yellowish liver with an enhanced lobular pattern, multifocal hepatic necrosis mostly in the midzones of lobules and sometimes with a random distribution across the hepatic lobes and swelling of hepatocytes. E. contortisiliquum trees has a wide distribution in South America and cases of poisoning have not been reported in horses...
July 19, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31330191/purification-and-biochemical-characterisation-of-a-putative-sodium-channel-agonist-secreted-from-the-south-african-knobbly-sea-anemone-bunodosoma-capense
#9
Wynand van Losenoord, Jason Krause, Shirley Parker-Nance, Rui Krause, Stoyan Stoychev, Carminita Lara Frost
Voltage gated ion channels have become a subject of investigation as possible pharmaceutical targets. Research has linked the activity of ion channels directly to anti-inflammatory pathways, energy homeostasis, cancer proliferation and painful diabetic neuropathy. Sea anemones secrete a diverse array of bioactive compounds including potassium and sodium channel toxins. A putative novel sodium channel agonist (molecular mass of 4619.7 Da) with a predicted sequence: CLCNSDGPSV RGNTLSGILW LAGCPSGWHN CKKHKPTIGW CCK was isolated from Bunodosoma capense using a modified stimulation technique to induce the secretion of the neurotoxin rich mucus confirmed by an Artemia nauplii bio-assay...
July 19, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31326508/isolation-of-two-basic-phospholipases-a-2-from-bothrops-diporus-snake-venom-comparative-characterization-and-synergism-between-asp49-and-lys49-variants
#10
Soledad Bustillo, Julián Fernández, Stephanie Chaves, Yamileth Angulo, Laura C Leiva, Bruno Lomonte
Bothrops diporus, previously considered a subspecies of the B. neuwiedi complex, is a medically relevant viperid in Northeastern Argentina. The venom of this species causes local tissue damage characterized by myonecrosis, hemorrhage, blistering, and edema. In the present study, two basic phospholipases A2 (PLA2 -I and PLA2 -II) were isolated from this venom, and their pathological effects upon murine skeletal muscle and myogenic cells in culture were analyzed. Partial amino acid sequencing showed that PLA2 -I and PLA2 -II are Asp49 and Lys49 PLA2 s, respectively...
July 18, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31326507/-unknown-title
#11
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 18, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31325459/resistance-between-nellore-curraleiro-pe-duro-and-pantaneiro-cattle-to-experimental-toxic-action-of-palicourea-marcgravii
#12
Juliana J Serodio, Luma T Silva Castro, Tábata L Morais, Fabiano J Ferreira de Sant'Ana, Raquel Soares Juliano, José Renato Junqueira Borges, Maria C Soares Fioravanti, Paulo H Jorge da Cunha
Palicourea marcgravii is the most important toxic plant in Brazil due to its acute toxicity (sudden death), palatability, cumulative effect and broad geographical distribution. The study aimed to evaluate the resistance between cattle of different breeds by experimental intoxication of P. marcgravii. Eighteen males were randomly divided into three groups (Nellore, Curraleiro Pe-Duro and Pantaneiro), six animals in each group. All animals were experimentally intoxicated with P. marcgravii at 0.5 mg/kg of equivalent sodium monofluoracetate acid, receiving one single oral dose...
July 17, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31323228/the-role-of-human-serum-albumin-and-neurotoxin-associated-proteins-in-the-formulation-of-bont-a-products
#13
Anna Kutschenko, Hans Bigalke, Florian Wegner, Kai Wohlfarth
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is synthesized as a progenitor toxin complex (PTC) by Clostridium botulinum. This PTC comprises, in addition to the neurotoxin itself, neurotoxin associated proteins (NAPs) which are composed of three hemagglutinins and one non-toxic, non-hemagglutinin protein. After oral ingestion, these NAPs protect the neurotoxin from the low pH and proteases in the gastrointestinal tract and play a role in the entry via the intestinal barrier. Two of the three therapeutically used botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) products (onabotulinumtoxinA and abobotulinumtoxinA) contain different amounts of NAPs, while incobotulinumtoxinA, lacks these proteins...
July 16, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31302115/structural-and-functional-characterisation-of-a-novel-peptide-from-the-australian-sea-anemone-actinia-tenebrosa
#14
Khaled A Elnahriry, Dorothy C C Wai, Bankala Krishnarjuna, Noha N Badawy, Balasubramanyam Chittoor, Christopher A MacRaild, Billy J Williams-Noonan, Joachim M Surm, David K Chalmers, Alan H Zhang, Steve Peigneur, Mehdi Mobli, Jan Tytgat, Peter Prentis, Raymond S Norton
Sea anemone venoms have long been recognised as a rich source of peptides with interesting pharmacological and structural properties. Our recent transcriptomic studies of the Australian sea anemone Actinia tenebrosa have identified a novel 13-residue peptide, U-AITx-Ate1. U-AITx-Ate1 contains a single disulfide bridge and bears no significant homology to previously reported amino acid sequences of peptides from sea anemones or other species. We have produced U-AITx-Ate1 using solid-phase peptide synthesis, followed by oxidative folding and purification of the folded peptide using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography...
July 11, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31278909/venom-week-vi-texas-a-m-university-kingsville-texas-march-14-18-2018-north-american-society-of-toxinology
#15
EDITORIAL
Daniel E Keyler, Elda E Sanchez, Stephen P Mackessy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 3, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31265845/cyanotoxin-production-beyond-the-cyanobacteria
#16
LETTER
Geoffrey A Codd, Peter B Nunn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 29, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31254601/envenomation-by-a-western-green-mamba-dendroaspis-viridis-a-report-of-three-episodes-in-switzerland
#17
Joan Fuchs, Stefan Weiler, Jürg Meier
The African elapid snake genus Dendroaspis comprises four species, with D. polylepsis the most dangerous of them. D. viridis is believed to cause stronger neurotoxic symptoms than the potentially least toxic of the genus, D. angusticeps, but less toxic compared to either of the D. jamesonii species. We present three episodes of bites by D. viridis in the same patient, sustained on three different occasions, caused by three different and unrelated snakes. While the first bite remained oligosymptomatic with a slight tightness of the throat and speedy resolution of symptoms without specific therapy, episodes two and three resulted in the patient developing massive local swelling...
June 26, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31254600/thai-russell-s-viper-monospecific-antivenom-is-immunoreactive-and-effective-in-neutralizing-the-venom-of-daboia-siamensis-from-java-indonesia
#18
Thava Malar Changra Lingam, Kae Yi Tan, Choo Hock Tan
Daboia siamensis monovalent antivenom (DSMAV, Thailand) exhibited comparable immunoreactivity toward the venoms of eastern Russell's vipers from Thailand and Indonesia. It also effectively neutralized the procoagulant and lethal effects of both venoms, showing high potency. The Indonesian heterologous trivalent antivenom SABU (Serum Anti Bisa Ular), however, has very weak immunoreactivity and it failed to neutralize the Russell's viper venoms. DSMAV appears to be the appropriate choice of antivenom to treat Russell's viper envenoming in Indonesia...
June 26, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31254599/a-single-exposure-to-the-tremorgenic-mycotoxin-lolitrem-b-inhibits-voluntary-motor-activity-and-spatial-orientation-but-not-spatial-learning-or-memory-in-mice
#19
M D Combs, A Hamlin, J C Quinn
The indole diterpenoid toxin lolitrem B is a tremorgenic agent found in the common grass species, perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). The toxin is produced by a symbiotic fungus Epichloë festucae (var. lolii) and ingestion of infested grass with sufficient toxin levels causes a movement disorder in grazing herbivores known as 'ryegrass staggers'. Beside ataxia, lolitrem B intoxicated animals frequently show indicators of cognitive dysfunction or exhibition of erratic and unpredictable behaviours during handling...
June 26, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31251993/when-spider-and-snake-get-along-fusion-of-a-snake-disintegrin-with-a-spider-phospholipase-d-to-explore-their-synergistic-effects-on-a-tumor-cell
#20
Raquel A G B Siqueira, Paula A L Calabria, Maria C Caporrino, Bianca C L F Tavora, Katia C Barbaro, Eliana L Faquim-Mauro, Maisa S Della-Casa, Geraldo S Magalhães
Venoms of spiders and snakes contain toxins extremely active and, thus, provide a natural source for the development of new biotechnological tools. Among the diversity of toxins present in the venom of spiders from genus Loxosceles, the phospholipases D (PLDs) show high hydrolytic activity upon lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and sphingomyelin (SM), generating bioactive phospholipids such as cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA). Since this mediator has been shown to play a major role in complex signaling pathways, including inhibition of tumor cells, the PLDs may hold the key to learn how toxins could be used for therapeutic purposes...
June 25, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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