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Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30954452/elucidation-and-partial-nmr-assignment-of-monosulfated-maitotoxins-from-the-caribbean
#1
Eugene P Mazzola, Jonathan R Deeds, Whitney L Stutts, Clark D Ridge, Robert W Dickey, Kevin D White, R Thomas Williamson, Gary E Martin
Compounds similar to maitotoxin (MTX) have been isolated from several laboratory strains of the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus spp. from the Caribbean. Mass spectral results suggest that these compounds differ from MTX by the loss of one sulfate group and, in some cases, the loss of one methyl group with the addition of one degree of unsaturation. NMR experiments, using approximately 50 nmol of one of these compounds, have demonstrated that the 9-sulfo group of MTX is still present, suggesting that these compounds are 40-desulfo congeners of MTX...
April 4, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30954451/venom-composition-of-adult-western-diamondback-rattlesnakes-crotalus-atrox-maintained-under-controlled-diet-and-environmental-conditions-shows-only-minor-changes
#2
Christopher J Rex, Stephen P Mackessy
Many species of snakes produce venom as a chemical means of procuring potentially fractious prey. Studies have increasingly focused on venom compositional variation between and within individual snakes of the same species/subspecies, with significant differences often being observed. This variation in composition has been attributed to differences in age, season, diet, and environment, suggesting that these factors could help explain the inter- and intra-specific variation found in some snake venoms, perhaps via some type of feedback mechanism(s)...
April 4, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30953661/comparative-analysis-of-naja-kaouthia-venom-from-north-east-india-and-bangladesh-and-its-cross-reactivity-with-indian-polyvalent-antivenoms
#3
Archana Deka, Md Abu Reza, Kazi Md Faisal Hoque, Kamalakshi Deka, Sougata Saha, Robin Doley
Naja kaouthia is one of the most prevalent medically important snakes of North East India and Bangladesh responsible for most of the bite cases. In this study, an attempt was made to decipher venom variation of Naja kaouthia venom from North East India and Bangladesh. Using multidimensional methods including reverse phase HPLC, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1D-PAGE) and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE), the quantitative differences in venom composition have been revealed...
April 3, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30951754/evaluation-of-neosaxitoxin-as-a-local-anesthetic-during-piglet-castration-a-potential-alternative-for-lidocaine
#4
Carolina Valenzuela, Cristian Torres, Vanina Muñoz, Juan Carlos Simbaina, Andrella Sánchez, Tamara Bustamante, Joaquín M Sepúlveda, Robin Piron, Miguel Del Campo, Néstor Lagos
OBJETIVE: To evaluate Neosaxitoxin (NeoSTX) as a local anesthetic drug, for pain control during and after piglet castration. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized and double-blind study. ANIMALS: 24 commercial hybrids, males, 23-day-old piglets. METHODS: The piglets were randomized into two groups: a Lidocaine group and a NeoSTX group. One minute before castration, they were injected intra-scrotally with a single dose of Lidocaine (20 mg, in 1 mL) and NeoSTX (0...
April 2, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30946914/evaluation-of-in-vitro-neutralization-of-epoxyscillirosidine-by-antibodies-raised-in-sheep
#5
Hamza Ibrahim Isa, Gezina Catharina Helena Ferreira, Jan Ernst Crafford, Christoffel Jacobus Botha
Intoxication by Moraea pallida Bak. (yellow tulp) in livestock is of great importance in South Africa, ranking top among all plant-induced cardiac glycoside toxicosis. The toxic principle, a bufadienolide, is 1α, 2α-epoxyscillirosidine. Treatment of poisoning is challenging and affected livestock often succumbs due to the stress of handling. Manipulating animals to resist poisoning is a potential management strategy. The goal of this study was to explore the potential to develop a vaccine against epoxyscillirosidine by raising antibodies against epoxyscillirosidine in sheep and to assess the neutralization ability of the antibodies in vitro...
April 1, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30946913/acute-heart-failure-in-rabbits-by-avocado-leaf-poisoning
#6
L S Aguirre, G V Sandoval, D M Medina, O G Martinez, J F Micheloud
The aim of this paper was to report an outbreak of avocado poisoning in rabbits in Salta, Argentina. Fourteen rabbits died of congestive heart failure within 30 h of ingesting fresh avocado leaves from pruned trees. They showed clinical signs of respiratory and cardiac distress. Full necropsies of four rabbits were performed and samples were collected for histopathology. The gross pathological observation included pleural and pericardial effusion, pulmonary oedema, slight ascites; the hearts appeared flabby and markedly pale...
April 1, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30946912/resveratrol-inhibits-aflatoxin-b1-induced-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells-and-is-involved-the-nrf2-signaling-pathway
#7
Yongfeng Zhou, Yongcheng Jin, Hao Yu, Anshan Shan, Jinglin Shen, Changhai Zhou, Yun Zhao, Hengtong Fang, Xin Wang, Junmei Wang, Yurong Fu, Rui Wang, Ruihua Li, Jing Zhang
Aflatoxins are widely occurring food contaminants that are particularly harmful to dairy products and cows. The plant polyphenol resveratrol has been reported to have a good effect on increasing the resistance of cells toward toxins. Therefore, we measured the effects of aflatoxin B1 and resveratrol on the viability of the MAC-T cow mammary epithelial cell line. The appropriate treatment concentrations were assayed (12.81 μM aflatoxin B1 and 43.81 μM resveratrol) to verify the protective effect of resveratrol toward mammary epithelial cells...
April 1, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30914282/igy-based-antivenom-against-bothrops-alternatus-production-and-neutralization-efficacy
#8
Carlos L Leiva, Adriana Cangelosi, Virginia Mariconda, Mariano Farace, Patricia Geoghegan, Luisa Brero, Mariano Fernández-Miyakawa, Pablo Chacana
Antivenom for the treatment of bothropic snakebite is a priority for public health institutions from Latin America. An alternative to the conventional antivenom production is based on the use of egg yolk antibodies - IgY-technology - by immunizing laying hens. In this study, we produced, characterized and assessed the efficacy of IgY-based antivenoms against B. alternatus venom. Immunochemical studies (reactivity, avidity and antigen recognition pattern) as well as antivenom efficacy assays were performed. After the 3rd immunization, levels of specific IgY reached a maximum that was maintained throughout the observation period, while avidity indexes of the extracts increased after the successive immunizations...
March 23, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30905699/use-of-infrared-thermography-in-a-case-of-systemic-envenomation-by-the-coral-snake-micrurus-frontalis-dum%C3%A3-ril-et-al-1854-in-sao-paulo-brazil
#9
Carlos Roberto de Medeiros, Solange Nogueira de Souza, Amanda Nazareth Lara, Kathleen Fernandes Grego
Infrared thermography is a technique that quantifies the thermal (infrared) radiation emitted by an object and produces a high-resolution, digital thermal image of it. Medically, this technique is used to visualize the body's surface temperature distribution in a non-invasive, safe, and convenient fashion. However, to the best of our knowledge, the use of infrared thermography for assessing the systemic effects of envenomation by coral snakes has not been reported. In this case report, we describe the use of this technique in the management of a case of snakebite in Sao Paulo, Brazil...
March 21, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30904569/coping-with-noxious-effects-of-quinine-by-praying-mantids-mantodea-and-spiders-araneae
#10
Dietrich Mebs, Cora Wunder, Stefan W Toennes
Because of its bitter taste, quinine elicits strong antifeedant and toxic effects in animals including arthropods. In the present study, two mantis, Sphodromantis viridis, Hierodula membranacea, and two spider species, Nephila edulis, Selenocosmia javanensis, were offered a quinine solution or prey (crickets) contaminated or injected with quinine, which they ingested and survived without apparent toxic symptoms. Analysis of their faeces and, in the case of spiders, of silk from their web revealed that quinine was excreted over a period of 8-12 (mantids) or 7 days (spiders)...
March 20, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30902684/a-confirmed-bite-by-a-beautiful-pit-viper-trimeresurus-venustus-resulting-in-local-symptoms
#11
Joan Fuchs, Karin Bessire, Stefan Weiler
This case report describes the effect of an envenomation by the Beautiful Pit Viper Trimeresurus venustus (or Cryptelytrops venustus), which is a green pit viper native to Thailand and Malaysia. A previously healthy 60-year-old snake breeder with no relevant medical history was bitten by his adult T. venustus in the third finger of his right hand while taking it out of the feeding box. The bite was painful and swelling progressed to include his whole hand within an hour after the bite. He was treated symptomatically with pre-emptive antibiotics and analgesics, never developed any hematological disorders such as coagulopathy and bleeding or disseminated intravascular coagulation and was discharged 26 hours after the bite...
March 19, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30902683/protective-effect-of-aqueous-extract-fractions-and-phenolic-compounds-of-hancornia-speciosa-fruits-on-the-inflammatory-damage-in-the-lungs-of-mice-induced-by-tityus-serrulatus-envenomation
#12
Mariana Angélica Oliveira Bitencourt, Manoela Torres-Rêgo, Maíra Conceição Jerônimo de Souza Lima, Allanny Alves Furtado, Eduardo Pereira de Azevedo Eduardo, Eryvaldo Sócrates Tabosa do Egito, Arnóbio Antônio da Silva-Júnior, Silvana Maria Zucolotto, Matheus de Freitas Fernandes-Pedrosa
Scorpion envenomation has been considered a public health issue around the world. Tityus serrulatus represents a specie of major medical importance in Brazil due to mortality rates of approximately 1% among children and elderly populations. The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vivo anti-inflammatory potential of aqueous extract from Hancornia speciosa fruits, its fractions and its phenolic compounds against T. serrulatus envenomation. After receiving the T. serrulatus venom (TsV, 0.8 mg/kg) intraperitoneally, the animals were treated intravenously with the aqueous extract (20, 30 and 40 mg/kg), the arachnid antivenom (50 μL/animal), the dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions (20 mg/kg) as well as rutin and chlorogenic acid (2, 2...
March 19, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30902682/transcriptome-analysis-of-the-spider-phoneutria-pertyi-venom-glands-reveals-novel-venom-components-for-the-genus-phoneutria
#13
Ana L B Paiva, Mauricio A Mudadu, Elaine H T Pereira, Camila A Marri, Clara Guerra-Duarte, Marcelo R V Diniz
Phoneutria nigriventer spider venom has been studied for more than 40 years and several components with pharmacological potential have been described in it. However, studies on venoms from other species of the Phoneutria genus are scarce. In this work, a conventional cDNA library from the species Phoneutria pertyi venom glands was constructed, aiming to identify novel putative cysteine-rich peptide toxins for the genus Phoneutria. 296 unique sequences were identified and 51 sequences corresponded to putative cysteine-rich peptide toxins...
March 19, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30898532/stingray-potamotrygon-rex-maturity-is-associated-with-inflammatory-capacity-of-the-venom
#14
Juliane Monteiro Dos Santos, Janaína Cardoso Dos Santos, Elineide Eugênio Marques, Gessi Carvalho de Araújo, Carla Simone Seibert, Mônica Lopes-Ferreira, Carla Lima
Several studies have been carried out with venom from sting and mucus of stingrays of marine or fluvial environments to compare the toxicity of their venom. However, studies demonstrating the existence of the influence of both sex and the maturation stage of stingrays on the variability of the toxic effects of venom are still scarce. Here, we investigated whether the sex and/or the stage maturation of the Potamotrygon rex stingray influence the toxic capacity of the venom to develop acute inflammation in mice...
March 18, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30890325/induction-of-two-independent-immunological-cell-death-signaling-following-hemoglobinuria-induced-acute-kidney-injury-in-vivo-study
#15
Rana Dizaji, Ali Sharafi, Jalal Pourahmad, Mohammad-Amin Abdollahifar, Hossein Vatanpour, Mir-Jamal Hosseini
The main important clinical signs in acute kidney injury (AKI) after sever Hemiscorpius lepturus envenomation in patients is associated with proteinuria, hemolysis and hemoglobinuria. Unfortunately, our limited knowledge of molecular cell death mechanism in H. lepturus induced AKI restricts the development of desirable therapeutics. So, in the present study, the potential role of necroptosis and ferroptosis in H. lepturus induced AKI were investigated in male albino mice. The animals were administrated by SC injection of venom (1, 2...
March 16, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30885617/severe-coagulopathy-in-merrem-s-hump-nosed-pit-viper-hypnale-hypnale-envenoming-unresponsive-to-fresh-frozen-plasma-a-case-report
#16
Harendra Kumara, Nimal Seneviratne, Dilini S Jayaratne, Sisira Siribaddana, Geoffrey K Isbister, Anjana Silva
The Merrem's hump-nosed viper (H. hypnale) causes many snakebites in South India and Sri Lanka. At present no antivenom is available for envenomings by this snake. A 42-year-old male bitten by a large H. hypnale, presented within 30 min of the bite and had a cardiac arrest soon after admission. This responded to standard advanced life support, but he had an unrecordably high international normalised ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time and unrecordably low fibrinogen, consistent with a complete venom-induced consumption coagulopathy...
March 15, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30880190/crotalus-durissus-terrificus-viperidae-crotalinae-envenomation-respiratory-failure-and-treatment-with-antivipmyn-tri-%C3%A2-antivenom
#17
R A Baum, J Bronner, P D S Akpunonu, J Plott, A M Bailey, D E Keyler
We report an envenomation to a professional herpetologist by a South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) that resulted in respiratory failure, and therapeutic improvement following antivenom administration. A 56-year-old male was bitten on the left wrist by a Crotalus durissus terrificus (C. d. terrificus) while attempting to tube the snake for maintaining safe control while performing venom extraction. The patient was intubated due to rapidly ensuing respiratory failure and administration of Antivipmyn-TRI® was initiated while being transported via ambulance...
March 14, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30880189/assessing-the-risk-of-residues-of-the-toxin-indospicine-in-bovine-muscle-and-liver-from-north-west-australia
#18
Gabriele Netzel, Dieter G Palmer, Anne M Masters, Samantha Y Tai, Jeremy G Allen, Mary T Fletcher
Indospicine is a natural toxin occurring only in Indigofera plant species, including the Australian native species I. linnaei. These perennial legumes are resistant to drought and palatable to grazing livestock including cattle. Indospicine accumulates in the tissues (including muscle) of animals grazing Indigofera and these residues persist for several months after exposure. Dogs are particularly sensitive to indospicine with reports in past decades of hepatotoxicosis and mortalities in dogs after dietary exposure to indospicine-contaminated horse and camel meat...
March 14, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30880188/thrombin-generation-test-for-evaluating-hemostatic-effects-of-brazilian-snake-venoms
#19
Rita Carolina Figueiredo Duarte, Danyelle Romana Alves Rios, Paula Mendonça Leite, Luan Carlos Alves, Henrique Pimenta Barroso Magalhães, Maria das Graças Carvalho
Snake venoms as well as their components have been tested worldwide to find new molecules for prophylaxis and treatment of several pathologies or even for diagnostic purposes. It is widely known that snake venoms contain enzymes and non-enzymatic proteins that interfere with hemostasis leading to hemorrhage or even thrombosis. The treatment of snake envenoming and the development of new drugs. The thrombin generation test (TGT) is a highly sensitive tool for investigation of hemostatic changes, overlapping with existing coagulometric techniques...
March 14, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30880187/rattlesnake-venom-induced-recurrent-coagulopathy-in-first-trimester-pregnant-women-twocases
#20
Elizabeth C Moore, Lauren M Porter, Anne-Michelle Ruha
Delayed or recurrent coagulopathy can occur up to 14 days after North American rattlesnake envenomation in patients that have been treated with Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (CroFab). There is little data in the literature characterizing the sequelae of North American rattlesnake envenomation in pregnancy and no previously published reports of recurrent coagulopathy in pregnancy. CASE REPORT: We present 2 cases of first trimester pregnant women requiring readmission and retreatment with Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (CroFab) after developing recurrent/late coagulopathy following North American Rattlesnake Envenomation...
March 14, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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