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Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/31121173/molecular-effects-of-microcystin-la-in-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#1
Daniel A Moreira, Raquel M Soares, Richard H Valente, Maria J Bebianno, Mauro F Rebelo
Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is a freshwater phytoplanktivorous fish species reported to accumulate and tolerate large amounts of cyanotoxins such as microcystins (MCs). The present study aimed to investigate molecular responses to the acute exposure of Nile tilapia to the Microcystin-LA analogue (MC-LA). Thus, the specimens were sublethally exposed to 1000 μg kg-1 of MC-LA for 12, 24, 48, and 96 h. Gene expression of PP1, PP2A, GST, GPX and actin was analyzed by quantitative PCR. The protein abundance profile of PP2A was determined by immunoblotting, while the integrity of its biological function was assessed by a phosphatase enzymatic assay...
May 20, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31121172/envenomation-by-micrurus-annellatus-bolivianus-peters-1871-coral-snake-in-the-western-brazilian-amazon
#2
Ageane Mota da Silva, Wirven Lima da Fonseca, Edgar de Araujo Valente Neto, Pedro Ferreira Bisneto, Jorge Contreras-Bernal, Jacqueline Sachett, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Paulo Sergio Bernarde
Bites by Micrurus snakes in Brazilian Amazon represent about 0.4% of snakebite registered in that area. There is not information available about the M. annellatus snakebites In this report, we describe a case of envenoming caused by Micrurus annellatus bolivianus recorded in the municipality of Cruzeiro do Sul, state of Acre, western Brazilian Amazon. On admission, the patient was suffering from mild pain, mild edema and paraesthesia restricted to the site of the bite, darkened vision and nausea. Laboratorial evaluation revealed unclottable blood which improved only after 3 days of follow-up...
May 20, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31103717/anti-toxoplasma-gondii-effect-of-two-spider-venoms-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#3
Shengjie Hou, Yuan Liu, Yaqin Tang, Mengqi Wu, Jianwu Guan, Xianyao Li, Zheng Wang, Jinying Jiang, Meichun Deng, Zhigui Duan, Xing Tang, Xiaoqing Han, Liping Jiang
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an important pathogen that can cause serious public health problems. Currently, therapeutic drugs for toxoplasmosis present serious side effects, researches on more effective and novel substances with relatively low toxicity are urgently needed. Spider venoms comprise diverse novel pharmacological compounds. However, the anti-T. gondii activity of spider venoms remains largely unknown. This study was carried out to evaluate the anti-parasitic effect of spider venoms from Ornitoctonus huwena (HWVM) and Chilobrachys jingzhao (JZVM) against T...
May 16, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31102596/untargeted-metabolic-profiling-of-dogs-with-a-suspected-toxic-mitochondrial-myopathy-using-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#4
H Hunt, K Fraser, N J Cave, B D Gartrell, J Petersen, W D Roe
'Go Slow myopathy' (GSM) is a suspected toxic myopathy in dogs that primarily occurs in the North Island of New Zealand, and affected dogs usually have a history of consuming meat, offal or bones from wild pigs (including previously frozen and/or cooked meat). Previous epidemiological and pathological studies on GSM have demonstrated that changes in mitochondrial structure and function are most likely caused by an environmental toxin that dogs are exposed to through the ingestion of wild pig. The disease has clinical, histological and biochemical similarities to poisoning in people and animals from the plant Ageratina altissima (white snakeroot)...
May 15, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31095961/use-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-for-the-inhibition-of-aspergillus-flavus-and-aspergillus-carbonarius-growth-and-mycotoxin-production
#5
Fadia Ben Taheur, Chalbia Mansour, Bochra Kouidhi, Kamel Chaieb
Almonds and peanuts are a rich source of proteins, vitamins and unsaturated fatty acids. However, they can be also contaminated by mycotoxigenic fungi; a reason that has enhanced to investigate efficient strategies of management of these fungal contaminations. Some Lactic acid bacteria have been proven capable of inhibiting growth and mycotoxin production in livestock and transform it into nontoxic derivatives. In this work, four lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were tested for their abilities to inhibit the growth and mycotoxin production of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus carbonarius...
May 13, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31095960/toxicity-of-vipera-palaestinae-venom-and-antagonistic-effects-of-methanolic-leaf-extract-of-eryngium-creticum-lam
#6
Shreen Deeb Nusair, Mohammad Ibrahim Ahmad
Vipera palaestinae is responsible for many venomous incidents in the Middle East. However, this species is not included in the antigenic pool of venoms for the production of the regionally available polyvalent antivenoms. In an attempt to develop a potential complementary alternative therapy for snakebite patients, this study is investigating the antagonistic effect of Eryngium creticum against V. palaestinae venom. In this context, the concentration of the venom as well as the electrophoretic profile, and the venom LD50 were determined by intraperitoneal injection (ip)...
May 13, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31091423/comparative-venomics-of-brazilian-coral-snakes-micrurus-frontalis-micrurus-spixii-spixii-and-micrurus-surinamensis
#7
Libia Sanz, Lucas N de Freitas-Lima, Sarai Quesada-Bernat, Viviane K Graça-de-Souza, Andreimar M Soares, Juan J Calvete, Cleópatra A S Caldeira
A comparative venom proteomic analysis of the Brazilian southern coral snake, M. frontalis, the Amazon coral snake M. spixii spixii, and the aquatic coral snake M. surinamensis is reported. Venoms from M. frontalis and M. s. spixii were composed mainly (>90% of the total venom proteome) by 3FTxs and PLA2 s in different proportions, and minor proteins from 2 to 5 protein families. Conversely, the aquatic coral snake expressed a streamlined (95%) 3FTx venom with low abundance (4.2%) of PLA2 molecules. A compositional-lethal activity for natural prey correlation analysis suggests that M...
May 12, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31063742/mapping-the-chemical-and-sequence-space-of-the-shkt-superfamily
#8
Thomas Shafee, Michela L Mitchell, Raymond S Norton
The ShKT superfamily is widely distributed throughout nature and encompasses a wide range of documented functions and processes, from modulation of potassium channels to involvement in morphogenesis pathways. Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs) contain a cysteine-rich domain (CRD) at the C-terminus that is similar in structure to the ShK fold. Despite the structural similarity of the CRD and ShK-like domains, we know little of the sequence-function relationships in these families. Here, for the first time, we examine the evolution of the biophysical properties of sequences within the ShKT superfamily, in relation to function, with a focus on the ShK-like superfamily...
May 4, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31054920/individual-and-combined-mycotoxins-deoxynivalenol-nivalenol-and-fusarenon-x-induced-apoptosis-in-lymphoid-tissues-of-mice-after-oral-exposure
#9
Sawinee Aupanun, Saranya Poapolathep, Patchara Phuektes, Mario Giorgi, Zhaowei Zhang, Isabelle P Oswald, Amnart Poapolathep
Lymphocytes are involved in the adaptive immune response and are highly sensitive to type B trichothecenes. In grains and their products, deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most widely distributed trichothecene. It usually co-occurs with other type B members, such as nivalenol (NIV) and fusarenon-X (FX), because they are all produced by the same Fusarium fungi. However, the combined effects of mycotoxins are complex and cannot be predicted based on individual toxicity. Thus, the adverse effects of combined toxins are of increasing concern...
May 2, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31054289/the-wound-healing-potential-of-a-pro-angiogenic-peptide-purified-from-indian-russell-s-viper-daboia-russelii-venom
#10
Rupamoni Thakur, Pranobesh Chattopadhyay, Ashis K Mukherjee
The cutaneous wound healing property of a pro-angiogenic venom peptide (RVVAP) in a cream-based formulation was evaluated using the excision wound healing model on Wistar strain rats. The wound healing potency and modest antibacterial activity of RVVAP was enhanced significantly (p < 0.05) when combined with Aloe vera extract. RVVAP was also found to be non-toxic at the tested dose of 1.0 mg/kg. Nevertheless, the release of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α in RVVAP-treated mice was suppressed, compared to the untreated controls...
May 1, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31047933/-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-botulinum-toxin-for-management-of-scars-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-and-trial-sequential-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Di Wang, Jiaorong Qu, Haiyue Jiang, Yu Jiang
Scars can have a dramatic impact on patients' physical appearance and function. Injection of botulinum toxin has been used to prevent scar formation at the site of injury and to remodel scars that have already formed. The purpose of this review is to assess the safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin for scar management compared to placebo or no treatment. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and PubMed Central were searched. Nine randomized controlled trials comparing injections of botulinum toxin versus placebo or no treatment for individuals of any age with scars were included and were assessed by two independent review authors...
April 29, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31047932/alphalisa-for-detection-of-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-b-free-from-interference-by-protein-a
#12
Junqing Zhao, Qingyu Lv, Peng Liu, Liyuan Guo, Liwen Zhang, Yuling Zheng, Lihua Ming, Decong Kong, Hua Jiang, Yongqiang Jiang
Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is an important enterotoxin which is a major reason for food poisoning and a potential biologic agent. Hence, rapid and accurate detection is very important. An amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous assay (AlphaLISA) for SEB detection was established here. Its performance was evaluated on mock specimen and culture supernatant. Its free from the effect of protein A was compared with ELISA. Results showed that the linear range for SEB detection was 25 pg/mL to 25 ng/mL...
April 29, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31034847/variability-of-ferulenol-and-ferprenin-concentration-in-french-giant-fennel-ferula-sp-leaves
#13
Gilbert Gault, Sébastien Lefebvre, Etienne Benoit, Virginie Lattard, Denis Grancher
Few studies have reported quantitative data about the levels of prenylated coumarins in Ferula sp. Yet, the toxicity of Ferula sp. is only due to the presence of prenylated coumarins and to their concentrations and all studies suggest the existence of several chemotypes within the same species or even within the same variety. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis of different chemotypes in french Ferula sp. in relationship with the botanical species. In this objective, the species of giant fennels and their concentrations in prenylated coumarins were explored...
April 26, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31034846/nephrotoxicity-induced-by-the-venom-of-hypnale-hypnale-from-sri-lanka-studies-on-isolated-perfused-rat-kidney-and-renal-tubular-cell-lines
#14
Mauren Villalta, Tiago Lima Sampaio, Ramon Róseo Paula Pessoa Bezerra de Menezes, Dânya Bandeira Lima, Antônio Rafael Coelho Jorge, Renata Sousa Alves, Helena Serra Azul Monteiro, Indika Gawarammana, Kalana Maduwage, Roy Malleappah, Guillermo León, Alice M C Martins, José María Gutiérrez
The hump-nosed pit viper Hypnale hypnale is responsible for a high number of snakebite cases in southwestern India and Sri Lanka. Although most patients only develop local signs and symptoms of envenoming, there is a growing body of evidence indicating that these envenomings may be associated with systemic alterations, including acute kidney injury. In this study we evaluated the direct renal toxicity of H. hypnale venom by using a perfused isolated rat kidney system and by assessing cytotoxicity in two different renal tubular cell lines in culture...
April 26, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31029638/cytotoxin-1-from-naja-atra-cantor-venom-induced-necroptosis-of-leukemia-cells
#15
Yamin Liu, Wei Ming, Yan Wang, Sihong Liu, Yanfen Qiu, Yongxin Xiang, Lili Hu, Lingjie Fan, Xiang Peng, Han Wang, Tianhan Kong, Weihua Dong, Qifeng Guo
BACKGROUND: Cytotoxin 1 (CTX1) purified from Naja atra Cantor venom could inhibit cancer cell proliferation, but the mechanism is not clear. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which leukemia cells are killed by CTX1. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HL-60 and KG1a cells were treated with CTX1 and the cell death was detected. RESULTS: The viability of HL-60 and KG1a cells decreased in a dose- and time-dependent manner after treatment with CTX1...
April 25, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31029637/animal-and-plant-factors-which-affect-larkspur-toxicosis-in-cattle-sex-age-breed-and-plant-chemotype
#16
Benedict T Green, John W Keele, Gary L Bennett, Dale R Gardner, Clint A Stonecipher, Daniel Cook, James A Pfister
Larkspur (Delphinium spp.) poisoning is a long-term problem for cattle grazing on rangelands of western North America. Recent research has shown that both plant and animal-based factors are critical in understanding and mitigating larkspur poisoning in cattle. Non-toxicological factors including sex, age, cattle breed, and plant chemotype affect cattle responses to larkspur. For example, Angus heifers are more susceptible to larkspur intoxication than are steers or bulls. Young cattle appear to be more susceptible to larkspur poisoning than mature animals...
April 25, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31029636/experimental-poisoning-by-heterophyllaea-pustulata-hook-f-rubiaceae-in-goats-clinical-biochemical-and-toxicological-aspects
#17
Juan Francisco Micheloud, Laura S Aguirre, Juliana Marioni, Maria Laura Mugas, José Luis Cabrera, Olga Gladys Martinez, Silvina Carola Gallardo, Eduardo Juan Gimeno, Susana Carolina Núñez-Montoya
The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical, biochemical and toxicological findings of the experimentally poisoning induced by Heterophyllaea pustulata in goats. Ten healthy adult female Saanen breed goats were used in the experiment. The goats were randomly assigned to two groups of five individuals: control and experimental group (CG and EG). Both groups were kept in the same enclosure devoid of shade for 8 h daily. The EG received only H. pustulata samples (leaves and thin steam) and water ad libitum...
April 25, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31029635/detection-of-okadaic-acid-oa-and-tetrodotoxin-ttx-simultaneously-in-seafood-samples-using-colloidal-gold-immunoassay
#18
Sumei Ling, Xiulan Li, Danping Zhang, Ke Wang, Wenwen Zhao, Qiang Zhao, Rongzhi Wang, Jun Yuan, Sijie Xin, Shihua Wang
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a neurotoxin mainly responsible for severe neurological illness, and okadaic acid (OA) is another important lipophilic toxin to humans. In this study, we developed a gold strip for simultaneous detection of OA and TTX in real seafood samples. In the assay, the prepared nanoparticles (about 40 nm) was applied to conjugate with specific monoclonal antibodies against OA and TTX, and the resulted mixtures were used to capture its corresponding toxin in test strip. OA and TTX conjugates were coated as two test lines on the nitrocellulose membrane, and goat anti-mouse IgG was used to form the control line, forming three lines on the test strip...
April 25, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31014961/the-isolation-and-characterization-of-a-new-snake-venom-cysteine-rich-secretory-protein-svcrisp-from-the-venom-of-the-southern-pacific-rattlesnake-and-its-effect-on-vascular-permeability
#19
Montamas Suntravat, Walter E Cromer, Jessenia Marquez, Jacob A Galan, David C Zawieja, Peter Davies, Emelyn Salazar Castillo, Elda E Sánchez
A novel snake venom cysteine-rich secretory protein (svCRiSP), Hellerin, was purified from C. o. helleri venom using sequential reverse phase and cation-exchange chromatography. Gel electrophoresis, N-terminal sequencing, and LC-MS/MS sequencing identified a single protein with a molecular mass of approximately 24.8 kDa and confirmed its identity as a svCRiSP. Hellerin had cytotoxic effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a dose-dependent manner but not in human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (HDLECs) and human dermal blood endothelial cells (HDBECs)...
April 20, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31004611/a-laboratory-based-exposure-of-microcystis-and-oscillatoria-cyanobacterial-isolates-to-heterotrophic-bacteria
#20
L Ndlela, P J Oberholster, J H Van Wyk, P H Cheng
Biological control of cyanobacteria is a viable means of controlling nuisance bloom occurrences; however the majority of studies done are against Microcystis sp., with a commonly lytic effect caused. Filamentous cyanobacteria such as Oscillatoria are not as extensively studied in this area of biological control and are often part of Microcystis dominated blooms. This study employed heterotrophic bacterial isolates selected from bloom waters that indicated potential predatory behaviour against both filamentous and colonial cyanobacterial isolates...
April 17, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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