Infections of the esophagus: an update on risk factors, diagnosis, and management

P Hoversten, A K Kamboj, D A Katzka
Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus 2018 December 1, 31 (12)
Infectious esophagitis is a leading cause of esophagitis worldwide. While esophageal infections have traditionally been associated with immunocompromised patients, these disorders are becoming increasingly recognized in immunocompetent individuals. The three most common etiologies of infectious esophagitis are Candida, herpes simplex virus, and cytomegalovirus. Human papilloma virus infection can also involve the esophagus in the form of ulcerative lesions and papillomas. Less common etiologies include various other fungal, bacterial, and viral organisms. This review provides a comprehensive update on risk factors, diagnosis, and management of both common and less common infections of the esophagus.

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