JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Is Metformin a Therapeutic Paradigm for Colorectal Cancer: Insight into the Molecular Pathway?

Zar Chi Thent, Nurul Hannim Zaidun, Muhammad Fairuz Azmi, Mu Izuddin Senin, Haszianaliza Haslan, Ruzain Salehuddin
Current Drug Targets 2017, 18 (6): 734-750
27919208
Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains one of the major leading causes of cancer related morbidity and mortality. Apart from the conventional anti-neoplastic agents, metformin, a biguanide anti-diabetic agent, has recently found to have anti-cancer property. Several studies observed the effect of metformin towards its anti-cancer effect on colon or colorectal cancer in diabetic patients. However, only a few studies showed its effect on colorectal cancer in relation to the non-diabetic status. The present review aimed to highlight the insight into the molecular pathway of metformin towards colorectal cancer in the absence of diabetes mellitus. In CRC-independent of diabetes mellitus, highly deregulation of PI3K/AKT pathway is found which activates the downstream mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Metformin inhibits cancer growth in colon by suppressing the colonic epithelial proliferation by inhibiting the mTOR pathway. Metformin exerts its anti-neoplastic effects by acting on tumour suppressor pathway via activating the adenosine monophosphate.activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. Metformin interrupts the glucose metabolism by activating the AMPK. Metformin reduces tumour cell growth and metastasis by activating the p53 tumour suppressor gene. In addition to its therapeutic benefits, metformin is easily accessible, cost effective with better tolerance to the patients compared to the chemotherapeutic agents. This review summarised modern findings on the therapeutic applications of metformin on the colorectal cancer with no evidences of diabetes mellitus.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
27919208
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"