VALIDATION STUDIES
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Beneficial value of testicular sperm extraction-AgarCyto in addition to the standard testicular biopsy for diagnosis of testicular germ cell tumors in nonobstructive azoospermia.

OBJECTIVE: To study whether immunohistochemical detection of germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS) in AgarCytos, made of the remnants of the testicular sperm extraction (TESE) specimen, is equally accurate as in a standard testicular biopsy.

DESIGN: Prospective cohort study performed between January 2013 and May 2014.

SETTING: University hospital.

PATIENT(S): All men with nonobstructive azoospermia (n = 197) undergoing a urological work-up followed by a unilateral or bilateral TESE for fertility treatment were consecutively included.

INTERVENTION(S): An AgarCyto was made of the remnants of these TESE biopsies. Simultaneously a standard testicular biopsy was performed. For all cases a routine hematoxylin-eosin (H & E) staining was performed as well as immunohistochemistry (PLAP and OCT3/4) to detect GCNIS.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The presence or absence of GCNIS in the TESE-AgarCyto and standard testicular biopsy.

RESULT(S): Six men (3.0%) were diagnosed with a germ cell (pre)malignancy by immunohistochemistry. No cases were encountered in which the TESE-AgarCyto was negative, whereas the standard testicular biopsy was positive for GCNIS. In one case the TESE-AgarCyto detected a premalignancy that was missed by standard testicular biopsy. Unfortunately a standard testicular biopsy was not available for direct comparison in 50% of the GCNIS-positive patients due to various reasons.

CONCLUSION(S): Because GCNIS is heterogeneously distributed in the testis, the TESE-AgarCyto can diagnose GCNIS even when the standard testicular biopsy is negative. Direct comparison of accuracy, however, is not reliable due to the low prevalence of GCNIS and the lack of a standard biopsy when an orchidectomy was performed simultaneously with TESE.

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