Outcomes for out-of-hospital cardiac arrests across 7 countries in Asia: The Pan Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study (PAROS)

Marcus Eng Hock Ong, Sang Do Shin, Nurun Nisa Amatullah De Souza, Hideharu Tanaka, Tatsuya Nishiuchi, Kyoung Jun Song, Patrick Chow-In Ko, Benjamin Sieu-Hon Leong, Nalinas Khunkhlai, Ghulam Yasin Naroo, Abdul Karim Sarah, Yih Yng Ng, Wen Yun Li, Matthew Huei-Ming Ma
Resuscitation 2015, 96: 100-8

BACKGROUND: The Pan Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study (PAROS) Clinical Research Network (CRN) was established in collaboration with emergency medical services (EMS) agencies and academic centers in Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, and UAE-Dubai and aims to report out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) and provide a better understanding of OHCA trends in Asia.

METHODS AND RESULTS: This is a prospective, international, multi-center cohort study of OHCA across the Asia-Pacific. Each participating country provided between 1.5 and 2.5 years of data from January 2009 to December 2012. All OHCA cases conveyed by EMS or presenting at emergency departments were captured. 66,780 OHCA cases were submitted to the PAROS CRN; 41,004 cases were presumed cardiac etiology. The mean age OHCA occurred varied from 49.7 to 71.7 years. The proportion of males ranged from 57.9% to 82.7%. Proportion of unwitnessed arrests ranged from 26.4% to 67.9%. Presenting shockable rhythm rates ranged from 4.1% to 19.8%. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) rates varied from 10.5% to 40.9%, however <1.0% of these arrests received bystander defibrillation. For arrests that were with cardiac etiology, witnessed arrest and VF, the survival rate to hospital discharge varied from no reported survivors to 31.2%. Overall survival to hospital discharge varied from 0.5% to 8.5%. Survival with good neurological function ranged from 1.6% to 3%.

CONCLUSIONS: Survival to hospital discharge for Asia varies widely and this may be related to patient and system differences. This implies that survival may be improved with interventions such as increasing bystander CPR, public access defibrillation and improving EMS.

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