Diagnostic value of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, cystatin C, and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 in critically ill patients with sepsis-associated acute kidney injury

Xingui Dai, Zhenhua Zeng, Chunlai Fu, Sheng'an Zhang, Yeping Cai, Zhongqing Chen
Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum 2015 May 6, 19: 223

INTRODUCTION: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), cystatin C (Cys-C), and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) are novel diagnostic biomarkers of acute kidney injury (AKI). We aimed to determine the diagnostic properties of these biomarkers for detecting AKI in critically ill patients with sepsis.

METHODS: We divided 112 patients with sepsis into non-AKI sepsis (n = 57) and AKI sepsis (n = 55) groups. Plasma and urine specimens were collected on admission and every 24 hours until 72 hours and tested for NGAL, Cys-C, and TREM-1 concentrations. Their levels were compared on admission, at diagnosis, and 24 hours before diagnosis.

RESULTS: Both plasma and urine NGAL, Cys-C, and sTREM-1 were significantly associated with AKI development in patients with sepsis, even after adjustment for confounders by using generalized estimating equations. Compared with the non-AKI sepsis group, the sepsis AKI group exhibited markedly higher levels of these biomarkers at diagnosis and 24 hours before AKI diagnosis (P < 0.01). The diagnostic and predictive values of plasma and urine NGAL were good, and those of plasma and urine Cys-C and sTREM-1 were fair.

CONCLUSION: Plasma and urine NGAL, Cys-C, and sTREM-1 can be used as diagnostic and predictive biomarkers for AKI in critically ill patients with sepsis.

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