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Addition of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors to beta-blockers has a distinct effect on hispanics compared with african americans and whites with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction: a propensity score-matching study

Parham Eshtehardi, Mohan Pamerla, M Khalid Mojadidi, David Goodman-Meza, Ninel Hovnanians, Anupam Gupta, Florentino Lupercio, Jeremy A Mazurek, Ronald Zolty
Journal of Cardiac Failure 2015, 21 (6): 448-56
25805065

BACKGROUND: There are currently no data on the efficacy of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) in Hispanic patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). We aimed to investigate the effect of adding ACEis to beta-blockers on mortality and hospitalization for HF exacerbation in patients with HFrEF stratified by race/ethnicity.

METHODS AND RESULTS: From Montefiore Medical Center's 3 large hospitals, 618 consecutive patients with HFrEF (left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] <35%) who were on a beta-blocker were retrospectively identified. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on whether or not they were on an ACEi for 24 consecutive months. Propensity score matching including all baseline characteristics was performed and patients were then categorized into 3 groups: African Americans, Hispanics, and Whites/Caucasians. We evaluated 2-year all-cause mortality and 2-year hospitalization for HF exacerbation. Of 618 patients, 66% were categorized as ACEi and 34% as no-ACEi. Four hundred twenty-seven patients were matched 2:1 between the ACEi and no-ACEi groups. After matching, overall 2-year mortality and hospitalization rates were similar between ACEi and no-ACEi (12.4% vs 17.8%, hazard ratio [HR] 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.38-1.16; P = .14; and 8.1% vs 9.5%, HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.44-1.60; P = .6; respectively). After stratifying patients based on race/ethnicity, ACEi demonstrated a lower 2-year mortality compared with no-ACEi in Hispanics (9.8% vs 28.4%, HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.13-0.87; P = .018) but not in African Americans (17.0% vs 11.8%, HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.34-2.65; P = .91) or Whites (9.2% vs 10.3%, HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.29-2.74; P = .83). Two-year hospitalization was not different between ACEi and no-ACEi in Hispanics, African Americans, or Whites (all P = NS). In multivariate analysis, ACEi therapy was an independent predictor of lower 2-year mortality (HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.12-0.89; P = .028) in Hispanics only.

CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective propensity-matched study of patients with HFrEF who were on a beta-blocker, ACEi therapy was associated with greater mortality reduction in Hispanic patients compared with African Americans and Whites. These findings need to be confirmed in large national studies that include a significant fraction of Hispanic patients.

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