Addition of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors to beta-blockers has a distinct effect on hispanics compared with african americans and whites with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction: a propensity score-matching study

Parham Eshtehardi, Mohan Pamerla, M Khalid Mojadidi, David Goodman-Meza, Ninel Hovnanians, Anupam Gupta, Florentino Lupercio, Jeremy A Mazurek, Ronald Zolty
Journal of Cardiac Failure 2015, 21 (6): 448-56

BACKGROUND: There are currently no data on the efficacy of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) in Hispanic patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). We aimed to investigate the effect of adding ACEis to beta-blockers on mortality and hospitalization for HF exacerbation in patients with HFrEF stratified by race/ethnicity.

METHODS AND RESULTS: From Montefiore Medical Center's 3 large hospitals, 618 consecutive patients with HFrEF (left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] <35%) who were on a beta-blocker were retrospectively identified. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on whether or not they were on an ACEi for 24 consecutive months. Propensity score matching including all baseline characteristics was performed and patients were then categorized into 3 groups: African Americans, Hispanics, and Whites/Caucasians. We evaluated 2-year all-cause mortality and 2-year hospitalization for HF exacerbation. Of 618 patients, 66% were categorized as ACEi and 34% as no-ACEi. Four hundred twenty-seven patients were matched 2:1 between the ACEi and no-ACEi groups. After matching, overall 2-year mortality and hospitalization rates were similar between ACEi and no-ACEi (12.4% vs 17.8%, hazard ratio [HR] 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.38-1.16; P = .14; and 8.1% vs 9.5%, HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.44-1.60; P = .6; respectively). After stratifying patients based on race/ethnicity, ACEi demonstrated a lower 2-year mortality compared with no-ACEi in Hispanics (9.8% vs 28.4%, HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.13-0.87; P = .018) but not in African Americans (17.0% vs 11.8%, HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.34-2.65; P = .91) or Whites (9.2% vs 10.3%, HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.29-2.74; P = .83). Two-year hospitalization was not different between ACEi and no-ACEi in Hispanics, African Americans, or Whites (all P = NS). In multivariate analysis, ACEi therapy was an independent predictor of lower 2-year mortality (HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.12-0.89; P = .028) in Hispanics only.

CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective propensity-matched study of patients with HFrEF who were on a beta-blocker, ACEi therapy was associated with greater mortality reduction in Hispanic patients compared with African Americans and Whites. These findings need to be confirmed in large national studies that include a significant fraction of Hispanic patients.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"