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JOURNAL ARTICLE

Defunctioning cannula ileostomy after lower anterior resection of rectal cancer

Hanju Hua, Jiahe Xu, Wenbin Chen, Xile Zhou, Jinhai Wang, Qinsong Sheng, Jianjiang Lin
Diseases of the Colon and Rectum 2014, 57 (11): 1267-74
25285693

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Most surgeons suggest the use of fecal diversion in patients undergoing low anterior resections of rectal tumors at high risk for anastomotic leakage. We describe an exploratory study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new diversion method called a spontaneously closing cannula ileostomy, which was designed to protect rectal anastomoses in patients at high risk for anastomotic leakage. The outcomes of patients treated with cannula ileostomy were compared to those of patients treated with loop ileostomy.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcomes included the rates of anastomotic leakage, reoperation and other complications, as well as length of hospital stay and cost.

DESIGN AND PATIENTS: From January 2011 to December 2012, 294 patients undergoing low colorectal or coloanal anastomosis were treated with ileum diversion using cannula ileostomy or traditional loop ileostomy. Demographics, clinical features, and operational data were recorded.

RESULTS: The anastomotic leakage rates were 8.1% (12/149) in the cannula ileostomy group and 8.3% (12/145) in the loop ileostomy group (p = 1.0). The reoperation rate was 3% (4/149) in patients treated with a cannula ileostomy and 3.4% (5/145) in those who underwent a loop ileostomy (p = 0.75). The median length of the hospital stay was 8.6 days in the cannula ileostomy group and 17.1 days (p < 0.01) in the loop ileostomy group, including time for the initial and reversal operations. In the cannula ileostomy group, the median time to defecation from the anus was 16.5 days after the operation. During the follow-up period, 13 patients in the loop ileostomy group retained their stoma, as compared to 2 in the cannula ileostomy group (p < 0.01).

LIMITATIONS: This study was a nonrandomized design and lacked contrast enema data to identify anastomotic leaks.

CONCLUSIONS: Cannula ileostomy is a safe and effective diverting technique that protects low colorectal and coloanal anastomoses. Patients receiving a cannula ileostomy had shorter hospital stays and lower rates of permanent stoma than those receiving a loop ileostomy.

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