Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: Pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment.
In 1990, takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) was first discovered and reported by a Japanese cardiovascular specialist. Since then, this heart disease has gained worldwide acceptance as an independent disease entity. TCM is an important entity that differs from acute myocardial infarction. It occurs more often in postmenopausal elderly women, is characterized by a transient hypokinesis of the left ventricular (LV) apex, and is associated with emotional or physical stress. Wall motion abnormality of the LV apex is generally transient and resolves within a few days to several weeks. Its prognosis is generally good. However, there are some reports of serious TCM complications, including hypotension, heart failure, ventricular rupture, thrombosis involving the LV apex, and torsade de pointes. It has been suggested that coronary spasm, coronary microvascular dysfunction, catecholamine toxicity and myocarditis might contribute to the pathogenesis of TCM. However, its pathophysiology is not clearly understood.
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