JOURNAL ARTICLE
MULTICENTER STUDY
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

Prevention of bone metastases in patients with high-risk nonmetastatic prostate cancer treated with zoledronic acid: efficacy and safety results of the Zometa European Study (ZEUS)

Manfred Wirth, Teuvo Tammela, Virgilio Cicalese, Francisco Gomez Veiga, Karl Delaere, Kurt Miller, Andrea Tubaro, Matthias Schulze, Frans Debruyne, Hartwig Huland, Anup Patel, Frederic Lecouvet, Christien Caris, Wim Witjes
European Urology 2015, 67 (3): 482-91
24630685

BACKGROUND: Patients with high-risk localised prostate cancer (PCa) are at risk of developing bone metastases (BMs). Zoledronic acid (ZA) significantly reduces the incidence of skeletal complications in castration-resistant metastatic PCa versus placebo.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate ZA for the prevention of BMs in high-risk localised PCa.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Randomised open-label multinational study with patients having at least one of the following: prostate-specific antigen ≥20 ng/ml, node-positive disease, or Gleason score 8-10.

INTERVENTION: Standard PCa therapy alone or combined with 4mg ZA intravenously every 3 mo for ≤4 yr.

OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: BMs were assessed using locally evaluated bone-imaging procedures (BIPs), with subsequent blinded central review. Patients with BMs, time to BMs, overall survival, and adverse events were compared between treatment groups.

RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A total of 1393 of 1433 randomised patients were used for intention-to-treat (ITT) efficacy analyses, with 1040 patients with BIP-BM outcome status at 4±0.5 yr. The local urologist/radiologist diagnosed BIP-BMs in 88 of 515 patients (17.1%) in the ZA group and 89 of 525 patients (17.0%) in the control group (chi-square test: p=0.95), with a difference between proportions of 0.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], -4.4 to 4.7) in favour of the control group. In the ITT population (n=1393), the Kaplan-Meier estimated proportion of BMs after a median follow-up of 4.8 yr was 14.7% in the ZA group versus 13.2% in the control group (log-rank: p=0.65). Low hot spot numbers on bone scans were confirmed as metastases with additional imaging. Central reviews of BIPs were possible only on a subset of patients.

CONCLUSIONS: ZA administered every 3 mo was demonstrated to be ineffective for the prevention of BMs in high-risk localised PCa patients at 4 yr.

PATIENT SUMMARY: Zoledronic acid administered every 3 mo was demonstrated to be ineffective for the prevention of bone metastases in high-risk nonmetastatic PCa patients at 4 yr.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: The ZEUS trial is registered in the Dutch trial register www.trialregister.nl and the ISRCTN register at http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN66626762.

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