JOURNAL ARTICLE

Febuxostat for treating allopurinol-resistant hyperuricemia in patients with chronic kidney disease

Yukinao Sakai, Tomoyuki Otsuka, Dai Ohno, Tsuneo Murasawa, Naoki Sato, Shuichi Tsuruoka
Renal Failure 2014, 36 (2): 225-31
24152124

BACKGROUND: Availability of the novel xanthine oxidase inhibitor febuxostat, which has multiple excretion pathways, enables investigation of the significance of serum uric acid control on renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).

METHODS: This was an exploratory, retrospective, observational study conducted at a single Japanese center. Serum uric acid concentrations and serum creatinine levels in the 6 months before and after the start of febuxostat treatment were collected for CKD patients switched from allopurinol after failing to achieve serum uric acid concentrations ≤6.0 mg/dL.

RESULTS: Evaluable data were available for 60 patients, 67% of whom had advanced CKD (eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m2). Mean dose of febuxostat was 15.9 (± 8) mg/day. Mean serum uric acid concentration decreased from 8.4 (±1.4) mg/dL at baseline to 6.2 (±1.2) mg/dL at 6 months; 47.5% of patients achieved a level ≤6.0 mg/dL. The change from baseline in eGFR was positive at all time points during febuxostat treatment and the increase of 2.3 (±5.6) mL/min/1.73 m2 at 6 months was significant (p = 0.0027). Whereas the eGFR slope was negative during allopurinol treatment, it became positive after the switch to febuxostat. The change in eGFR slope before and after febuxostat treatment was significant for all patients (p < 0.01), for male patients (p < 0.05), and for patients with a baseline eGFR of <15 mL/min/1.73 m2 (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: In patients with CKD, febuxostat reduces serum uric acid concentrations effectively and may suppress the progressive decline in renal function.

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