Effects of a fish-based diet and administration of pure eicosapentaenoic acid on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in patients with cardiovascular risk factors

Yoshihiro Fukuoka, Norihito Nuruki, Shun Amiya, Katsunori Tofuku, Shinichiro Aosaki, Hirohito Tsubouchi
Journal of Cardiology 2014, 63 (3): 211-7

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and ratio of plasma eicosapentaenoic acid to arachidonic acid (EPA/AA ratio) are surrogate markers for coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to evaluate the effects of a fish-based diet and administration of EPA on baPWV and plasma EPA/AA ratio.

METHODS AND RESULTS: The changes in baPWV and plasma EPA/AA ratio were compared before and after a 6-month fish-based diet in 191 patients with cardiovascular risk factors. A fish-based diet resulted in significant increment of plasma EPA/AA ratio (0.40±0.18 vs. 0.49±0.27, p<0.001), with baPWV remaining unchanged. Multivariate analysis revealed that systolic blood pressure (SBP) (6-month SBP-baseline SBP) and CAD were positively associated with increased baPWV (CAD: odds ratio=2.040, p=0.0436, SPB: odds ratio=1.056, p=0.0003). When the patients were divided into three groups: CAD, low-risk, and high-risk with no prior history of CAD according to the number of risk factors at baseline, comparison among the three groups disclosed an inter-group difference in the magnitude of change in baPWV (low-risk: -35±164cm/s, high-risk: -14±190cm/s, CAD: 39±164cm/s, p=0.0071 for trend). In 191 patients who had received a 6-month fish-based diet, 21 patients (primarily CAD patients) sequentially received high purity EPA (1800mg/day) for 6 months. It resulted in marked increment of plasma EPA/AA ratio (0.65±0.57 vs. 1.19±0.46, p<0.001), accompanied by significant reduction in baPWV (1968±344cm/s vs. 1829±344cm/s, p=0.0061). There was a significant negative correlation between changes in baPWV and changes in plasma EPA/AA ratio in patients with a fish-based diet and sequential administration of EPA (r=-0.446, p=0.017).

CONCLUSION: A fish-based diet was effective against increased baPWV only in low-risk patients, with slight increment of plasma EPA/AA. In high-risk patients and CAD patients, administration of EPA for preventing progression of baPWV endorsed the validity of high purity EPA administration recommended in the current guidelines.

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