Local synchronization and amplitude of the fluctuation of spontaneous brain activity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a resting-state fMRI study

Li An, Qing-Jiu Cao, Man-Qiu Sui, Li Sun, Qi-Hong Zou, Yu-Feng Zang, Yu-Feng Wang
Neuroscience Bulletin 2013, 29 (5): 603-13
Regional homogeneity (ReHo) and the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) are two approaches to depicting different regional characteristics of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) data. Whether they can complementarily reveal brain regional functional abnormalities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remains unknown. In this study, we applied ReHo and ALFF to 23 medication-naïve boys diagnosed with ADHD and 25 age-matched healthy male controls using whole-brain voxel-wise analysis. Correlation analyses were conducted in the ADHD group to investigate the relationship between the regional spontaneous brain activity measured by the two approaches and the clinical symptoms of ADHD. We found that the ReHo method showed widely-distributed differences between the two groups in the fronto-cingulo-occipito-cerebellar circuitry, while the ALFF method showed a difference only in the right occipital area. When a larger smoothing kernel and a more lenient threshold were used for ALFF, more overlapped regions were found between ALFF and ReHo, and ALFF even found some new regions with group differences. The ADHD symptom scores were correlated with the ReHo values in the right cerebellum, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and left lingual gyrus in the ADHD group, while no correlation was detected between ALFF and ADHD symptoms. In conclusion, ReHo may be more sensitive to regional abnormalities, at least in boys with ADHD, than ALFF. And ALFF may be complementary to ReHo in measuring local spontaneous activity. Combination of the two may yield a more comprehensive pathophy-siological framework for ADHD.

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