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Neuroscience Bulletin

Qian Yang, Kang Chen, Hanlin Zhang, Wanying Zhang, Changlin Gong, Qing Zhang, Pan Liu, Tianyi Sun, Yuanyuan Xu, Xiaojing Qian, Wenying Qiu, Chao Ma
In this study, the distribution of five Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Han population was examined in combination with the evaluation of clinical cognition and brain pathological analysis. The associations among SNPs, clinical daily cognitive states, and postmortem neuropathological changes were analyzed in 110 human brains from the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences/Peking Union Medical College (CAMS/PUMC) Human Brain Bank. APOE ε4 (OR = 4.482, P = 0...
February 19, 2019: Neuroscience Bulletin
Daniel Erskine, John-Paul Taylor, Alan Thomas, Daniel Collerton, Ian McKeith, Ahmad Khundakar, Johannes Attems, Christopher Morris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2019: Neuroscience Bulletin
Meng Jia, Xuewei Wang, Haolin Zhang, Can Ye, Hui Ma, Mingda Yang, Yijing Li, Cailian Cui
MicroRNA-132 (miR-132), a small RNA that regulates gene expression, is known to promote neurogenesis in the embryonic nervous system and adult brain. Although exposure to psychoactive substances can increase miR-132 expression in cultured neural stem cells (NSCs) and the adult brain of rodents, little is known about its role in opioid addiction. So, we set out to determine the effect of miR-132 on differentiation of the NSCs and whether this effect is involved in opioid addiction using the rat morphine self-administration (MSA) model...
February 5, 2019: Neuroscience Bulletin
Qiong-Bin Zhu, Ai-Min Bao, Dick Swaab
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by decreased neuronal activity and atrophy, while hyperactivity of neurons seems to make them resistant to aging and neurodegeneration, a phenomenon which we have paraphrased as 'use it or lose it'. Our hypothesis proposes that (1) during their functioning, neurons are damaged; (2) accumulation of damage that is not repaired is the basis of aging; (3) the vulnerability to AD is determined by the genetic background and the balance between the amount of damage and the efficiency of repair, and (4) by stimulating the brain, repair mechanisms are stimulated and cognitive reserve is increased, resulting in a decreased rate of aging and risk for AD...
February 5, 2019: Neuroscience Bulletin
Lei Guo, Jochem Stormmesand, Zheng Fang, Qingbin Zhu, Rawien Balesar, Joop van Heerikhuize, Arja Sluiter, Dick Swaab, Ai-Min Bao
The locus coeruleus (LC) has been studied in major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). A major problem of immunocytochemical studies in the human LC is interference with the staining of the immunocytochemical end-product by the omnipresent natural brown pigment neuromelanin. Here, we used a multispectral method to untangle the two colors: blue immunocytochemical staining and brown neuromelanin. We found significantly increased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the LC of MDD patients-thus validating the method-but not in BD patients, and we did not find significant changes in the receptor tyrosine-protein kinase ErbB4 in the LC in MDD or BD patients...
January 31, 2019: Neuroscience Bulletin
Ai-Hua Liu, Min Chu, Yu-Ping Wang
Epilepsy is a chronic and severe neurological disorder that has negative effects on the autonomous activities of patients. Functionally, Trem2 (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2) is an immunoglobulin receptor that affects neurological and psychiatric genetic diseases. Based on this rationale, we aimed to assess the potential role of Trem2 integration with the PI3K/Akt pathway in epilepsy. We used microarray-based gene expression profiling to identify epilepsy-related differentially-expressed genes...
January 25, 2019: Neuroscience Bulletin
Fengfeng Lu, Dou Yin, Yingyan Pu, Weili Liu, Zhenghao Li, Qi Shao, Cheng He, Li Cao
The obstacle to successful remyelination in demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, mainly lies in the inability of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) to differentiate, since OPCs and oligodendrocyte-lineage cells that are unable to fully differentiate are found in the areas of demyelination. Thus, promoting the differentiation of OPCs is vital for the treatment of demyelinating diseases. Shikimic acid (SA) is mainly derived from star anise, and is reported to have anti-influenza, anti-oxidation, and anti-tumor effects...
January 25, 2019: Neuroscience Bulletin
Xinzhi Wang, Shuyue Li, Jinbang Ma, Chuangang Wang, Anzhong Chen, Zhenxue Xin, Jianjun Zhang
Gastrodin is a phenolic glycoside that has been demonstrated to provide neuroprotection in preclinical models of central nervous system disease, but its effect in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains unclear. In this study, we showed that intraperitoneal administration of gastrodin (100 mg/kg per day) significantly attenuated the SAH-induced neurological deficit, brain edema, and increased blood-brain barrier permeability in rats. Meanwhile, gastrodin treatment significantly reduced the SAH-induced elevation of glutamate concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid and the intracellular Ca2+ overload...
January 23, 2019: Neuroscience Bulletin
Zixi Jack Cheng, Renjun Wang, Qing-Hui Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2019: Neuroscience Bulletin
Yu Xu, Na-Xi Tian, Qing-Yang Bai, Qi Chen, Xiao-Hong Sun, Yun Wang
Investigation of pain requires measurements of nociceptive sensitivity and other pain-related behaviors. Recent studies have indicated the superiority of gait analysis over traditional evaluations (e.g., skin sensitivity and sciatic function index [SFI]) in detecting subtle improvements and deteriorations in animal models. Here, pain-related gait parameters, whose criteria include (1) alteration in pain models, (2) correlation with nociceptive threshold, and (3) normalization by analgesics, were identified in representative models of neuropathic pain (spared nerve injury: coordination data) and inflammatory pain (intraplantar complete Freund's adjuvant: both coordination and intensity data) in the DigiGait™ and CatWalk™ systems...
January 18, 2019: Neuroscience Bulletin
Yao Zhang, Jia-Zhao Xie, Xiang-Yang Xu, Jun Hu, Teng Xu, Si Jin, Shao-Juan Yang, Jian-Zhi Wang
Hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy) is an independent risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), and insulin-resistance is commonly seen in patients with Hhcy. Liraglutide (Lir), a glucagon-like peptide that increases the secretion and sensitivity of insulin, has a neurotrophic or neuroprotective effect. However, it is not known whether Lir ameliorates the AD-like pathology and memory deficit induced by Hhcy. By vena caudalis injection of homocysteine to produce the Hhcy model in rats, we found here that simultaneous administration of Lir for 2 weeks ameliorated the Hhcy-induced memory deficit, along with increased density of dendritic spines and up-regulation of synaptic proteins...
January 10, 2019: Neuroscience Bulletin
Jian-Feng Liu, Ruyan Wu, Jun-Xu Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2019: Neuroscience Bulletin
Na Li, Yue Guan, Yan-Ming Tian, Hui-Jie Ma, Xiangjian Zhang, Yi Zhang, Sheng Wang
Chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH) is known to have an anti-hypertensive effect, which might be related to modulation of the baroreflex in rats with renal vascular hypertension (RVH). In this study, RVH was induced by the 2-kidney-1-clip method (2K1C) in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were then treated with hypobaric hypoxia simulating 5000 m altitude for 6 h/day for 28 days. The arterial blood pressure (ABP), heart rate (HR), and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) were measured before and after microinjection of L-arginine into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) in anesthetized rats...
January 7, 2019: Neuroscience Bulletin
Xin Wei, Xi Liu, Changhong Tan, Lijuan Mo, Hui Wang, Xi Peng, Fen Deng, Lifeng Chen
Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG), encoded by the AZGP1 gene, is a major histocompatibility complex I molecule and a lipid-mobilizing factor. ZAG has been demonstrated to promote lipid metabolism and glucose utilization, and to regulate insulin sensitivity. Apart from adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, liver, and kidney, ZAG also occurs in brain tissue, but its distribution in brain is debatable. Only a few studies have investigated ZAG in the brain. It has been found in the brains of patients with Krabbe disease and epilepsy, and in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Alzheimer disease, frontotemporal lobe dementia, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis...
January 4, 2019: Neuroscience Bulletin
Yu Sun, Cheng Xu, Changcun Pan, Xin Chen, Yibo Geng, Yuliang Wu, Peng Zhang, Wenhao Wu, Yu Wang, Deling Li, Zhen Wu, Junting Zhang, Qiaoran Xi, Liwei Zhang
Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is the main cause of brain tumor-related death among children. Until now, there is still a lack of effective therapy with prolonged overall survival for this disease. A typical strategy for preclinical cancer research is to find out the molecular differences between tumor tissue and para-tumor normal tissue, in order to identify potential therapeutic targets. Unfortunately, it is impossible to obtain normal tissue for DIPG because of the vital functions of the pons. Here we report the human fetal hindbrain-derived neural progenitor cells (pontine progenitor cells, PPCs) as normal control cells for DIPG...
January 3, 2019: Neuroscience Bulletin
Chao Luo, Junyan Liu, Xu Wang, Xiaoyuan Mao, Honghao Zhou, Zhaoqian Liu
Antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG) is a common adverse effect of this treatment, particularly with second-generation antipsychotics, and it is a major health problem around the world. We aimed to review the progress of pharmacogenetic studies on AIWG in the Chinese population to compare the results for Chinese with other ethnic populations, identify the limitations and problems of current studies, and provide future research directions in China. Both English and Chinese electronic databases were searched to identify eligible studies...
January 3, 2019: Neuroscience Bulletin
Claire E Shepherd, Holly Alvendia, Glenda M Halliday
Advances in cellular and molecular biology underpin most current therapeutic advances in medicine. Such advances for neurological and neurodegenerative diseases are hindered by the lack of similar specimens. It is becoming increasingly evident that greater access to human brain tissue is necessary to understand both the cellular biology of these diseases and their variation. Research in these areas is vital to the development of viable therapeutic options for these currently untreatable diseases. The development and coordination of human brain specimen collection through brain banks is evolving...
January 2, 2019: Neuroscience Bulletin
Xinyang Qi, Zhanhong Jeff Du, Lin Zhu, Xuemei Liu, Hua Xu, Zheng Zhou, Cheng Zhong, Shijiang Li, Liping Wang, Zhijun Zhang
A deficit in spatial memory has been taken as an early predictor of Alzheimer's disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The uncinate fasciculus (UF) is a long-range white-matter tract that connects the anterior temporal lobe with the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in primates. Previous studies have shown that the UF impairment associated with spatial memory deficits may be an important pathological change in aging and AD, but its exact role in spatial memory is not well understood. The pathway arising from the postrhinal cortex (POR) and projecting to the ventrolateral orbitofrontal cortex (vlOFC) performs most of the functions of the UF in rodents...
January 2, 2019: Neuroscience Bulletin
Xin-Rui Qi, Ronald W H Verwer, Ai-Min Bao, Rawien A Balesar, Sabina Luchetti, Jiang-Ning Zhou, Dick F Swaab
Investigating the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying brain disorders is a priority if novel therapeutic strategies are to be developed. In vivo studies of animal models and in vitro studies of cell lines/primary cell cultures may provide useful tools to study certain aspects of brain disorders. However, discrepancies among these studies or unsuccessful translation from animal/cell studies to human/clinical studies often occur, because these models generally represent only some symptoms of a neuropsychiatric disorder rather than the complete disorder...
January 2, 2019: Neuroscience Bulletin
Paul T Francis, Gillian M Hayes, Helen Costello, David R Whitfield
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2019: Neuroscience Bulletin
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