Retinoic acid promotes proliferation of chicken primordial germ cells via activation of PI3K/Akt-mediated NF-κB signalling cascade

Minli Yu, Chutian Ge, Weidong Zeng, Yuling Mi, Caiqiao Zhang
Cell Biology International 2012 August 1, 36 (8): 705-12
As embryonic progenitors for the gametes, PGCs (primordial germ cells) proliferate and develop under strict regulation of numerous intrinsic and external factors. As the most active natural metabolite of vitamin A, all-trans RA (retinoic acid) plays pivotal roles in regulating development of various cells. The proliferating action of RA on PGCs was investigated along with the intracellular PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt (protein kinase B; also known as Akt)-mediated NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) signalling cascade. The results show that RA significantly promoted PGC proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner, confirmed by BrdU (bromodeoxyuridine) incorporation and cell cycle analysis. However, this promoting effect was attenuated by sequential inhibitors of LY294002 for PI3K, KP372-1 for Akt and SN50 for NF-κB respectively. Western blot analysis showed increased Akt phosphorylation (Ser473) of PGCs after stimulation with RA, but this was abolished by LY294002 or KP372-1. Treatment with RA increased expression of NF-κB and decreased IκBα (inhibitory κBα) expression, which were inhibited by SN50. Blockade of PI3K or Akt activity inhibited NF-κB translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Finally, mRNA expression of cell cycle regulating genes [cyclin D1 and E, CDK6 (cyclin-dependent kinase 6) and CDK2] was up-regulated in the RA-treated cells. This stimulation was also markedly retarded by combined treatment with LY294002, KP372-1 and SN50. These results suggest that RA activates the PI3K/Akt and NF-κB signalling cascade to promote proliferation of the cultured chicken PGCs.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"