RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
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CTNNB1 genotyping and APC screening in pediatric desmoid tumors: a proposed algorithm.

Desmoid fibromatosis is a rare, locally aggressive fibroblastic/myofibroblastic tumor that occasionally involves children. We examined a series of pediatric desmoids for CTNNB1 mutations, seen in sporadic tumors, and APC germline mutations, associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Forty-four desmoids in pediatric patients were identified in the pathology files of 2 large referral centers (1995-2009). Clinical charts were reviewed for history of FAP. Germline APC gene mutations were determined on blood samples from patients presenting with FAP. Immunohistochemistry for beta-catenin was performed. CTNNB1 genotyping was done by Sanger sequencing on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. CTNNB1 mutations were observed in 29 of 44 (66%) desmoids, with 3 mutations identified: T41A (64%), S45F (29%), and S45P (7%). Germline APC mutations were present in 7 (16%) desmoid patients. Eight (18%) patients had desmoids that were wild type for CTNNB1 and had no known clinical signs or family history suspicious for FAP at the time of testing or with extended follow up (n  =  6). Beta-catenin nuclear labeling was observed in 38 of 41 (92%) tested cases, 34 (89%) of which showed mutations in either CTNNB1 (n  =  29) or APC (n  =  5). Nuclear localization of beta-catenin was seen in the majority of pediatric desmoids and was most often associated with somatic mutations in CTNNB1. However, a significant proportion of pediatric patients harbored germline mutations in APC. Given the implications, genetic counseling is recommended for children diagnosed with desmoid tumors lacking CTNNB1 mutations because this population is enriched for FAP patients.

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