Peripheral extracorporeal membrane oxygenation system as salvage treatment of patients with refractory cardiogenic shock: preliminary outcome evaluation

Antonio Loforte, Andrea Montalto, Federico Ranocchi, Paola Lilla Della Monica, Giovanni Casali, Angela Lappa, Antonio Menichetti, Carlo Contento, Francesco Musumeci
Artificial Organs 2012, 36 (3): E53-61
The novel Permanent Life Support (PLS; Maquet, Jostra Medizintechnik AG, Hirrlingen, Germany) as peripheral veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support system has been investigated as treatment for patients with refractory cardiogenic shock (CS). Between January 2007 and July 2011, 73 consecutive adult patients were supported on peripheral PLS ECMO system at our institution (55 men; age 60.3 ± 11.6 years, range: 23-84 years). Indications for support were failure to wean from cardiopulmonary bypass in the setting of postcardiotomy (n = 50) and primary donor graft failure (n = 8), post-acute myocardial infarction CS (n = 12), and CS on chronic heart failure (n = 3). Mean support time was 10.9 ± 7.6 days (range: 2-34 days). Overall, 26 (35.6%) patients died on ECMO. Among survivors on ECMO, 44 (60.2%) patients were successfully weaned from support, and three (4.1%) were switched to a mid-long-term ventricular assist device. Thirty-three (45.2%) were successfully discharged. The following variables were significantly different if survivors and nonsurvivors on ECMO were compared: age (P = 0.04), female gender (P < 0.01), cardiopulmonary resuscitation before ECMO (P < 0.01), lactate level before ECMO (P = 0.01), number of platelets, fresh frozen plasma units, and packed red blood cells (PRBCs) transfused during ECMO support (P = 0.03, P = 0.02, and P < 0.01), blood lactate level (P = 0.01), and creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB) relative index 72 h after ECMO initiation (P < 0.001), and multiple organ failure on ECMO (P < 0.01). Stepwise logistic regression identified blood lactate level and CK-MB relative index at 72 h after ECMO initiation, and number of PRBCs transfused on ECMO as significant predictors of mortality on ECMO (P = 0.011, odds ratio [OR] = 2.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-3.12; P = 0.012, OR = 2.81, 95% CI = 1.026-2.531; and P = 0.012, OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.02-5.21; respectively). Patients with an initial poor hemodynamic status could benefit by rapid peripheral installation of PLS ECMO. The blood lactate level, CK-MB relative index, and PRBCs transfused should be strictly monitored during ECMO support.

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