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Artificial Organs

Petra Palanova, Veronika Mrkvicova, Marta Nedbalkova, Michaela Sosikova, Petr Konecny, Jiri Jarkovsky, Emmanuel Marques, Marie Novakova, Michal Pohanka, Miroslav Soucek, Petr Dobsak
There is ample evidence that maintenance of basic physical fitness through exercise training is crucial for patients with chronic renal insufficiency. Rehabilitation based on neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) of thigh muscles has been shown to have many beneficial effects in patients with chronic diseases. It is likely that NMES could have beneficial effects also in patients on chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). NMES was applied for 20 weeks to 14 patients on CAPD, mean age 61.9 (8.7) years, using battery-powered stimulators (CEFAR-REHAB X2; Sweden) and self-adhesive electrodes 80 × 130 mm (PALS Platinum; Denmark)...
February 11, 2019: Artificial Organs
Daniel B Sims, Rachna Kataria, Sabarivinoth Rangasamy, Ulrich P Jorde
The clinical significance of positive anti-hepatitis C virus antibody tests in recipients of left ventricular assist devices remains unclear. In light of emerging evidence suggesting the possibility of persistent low-level hepatitis C virus infection in patients with positive anti-hepatitis C virus antibody test but negative hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid, it is very important to distinguish the truly false positive hepatitis C virus antibodies, in recipients of continuous flow left ventricular assist devices, from those suggestive of a prior clinically resolved infection or one where a low-level viremia may have persisted...
February 6, 2019: Artificial Organs
Philippe Morimont, Simon Habran, Thomas Desaive, Francine Blaffart, Marc Lagny, Theophile Amand, Pierre Dauby, Cecile Oury, Patrizio Lancellotti, Alexandre Hego, Jean-Olivier Defraigne, Bernard Lambermont
Low flow extracorporeal veno-venous CO2 removal (ECCO2 R) therapy is used to remove CO2 while reducing ventilation intensity. However, the use of this technique is limited because efficiency of CO2 removal and potential beneficial effects on pulmonary hemodynamics are not precisely established. Moreover, this technique requires anticoagulation that may induce severe complications in critically ill patients. Therefore, our study aimed at determining precisely efficiency of CO2 extraction and its effects on right ventricular (RV) afterload, and comparing regional anticoagulation with citrate to systemic heparin anticoagulation during ECCO2 R...
January 31, 2019: Artificial Organs
Giovanni Battista Luciani, Stiljan Hoxha, Emanuela Angeli, Francesco Petridis, Lucio Careddu, Alessio Rungatscher, Massimo Caputo, Gaetano Gargiulo
BACKGROUND: The results of neonatal aortic arch surgery using cerebro-myocardial perfusion were analyzed. Selective cerebral and myocardial perfusion, using two separate pump rotors, was compared with standard, using a single pump rotor with an arterial line Y-connector. METHODS: Between 5/2008-5/2016, 69 consecutive neonates underwent arch repair using either selective cerebro-myocardial perfusion (Group A, n=34) or standard (Group B, n=35). The groups were similar for age, weight, BSA, prevalence of one-stage or staged repair and single ventricle palliation; male gender was more frequent in Group A...
January 30, 2019: Artificial Organs
Masashi Yamanami, Keiichi Kanda, Takanori Kawasaki, Daisuke Kami, Taiji Watanabe, Satoshi Gojo, Hitoshi Yaku
BACKGROUND: In earlier studies, we developed in vivo tissue-engineered, autologous, small-caliber vascular grafts, called "biotubes," which withstand systemic blood pressure and exhibit excellent performance as small-caliber vascular prostheses in animal models. However, biotube preparation takes 4 weeks; therefore, biotubes cannot be applied in emergency situations. Moreover, for responses to various types of surgery, grafts should ideally be readily available in advance. AIM: The aim of this study was to develop novel, off-the-shelf, small-caliber vascular grafts by decellularizing in vivo tissue-engineered xenogeneic tubular materials...
January 30, 2019: Artificial Organs
Satoru Nakamoto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 28, 2019: Artificial Organs
Paul S Malchesky
In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2018 are organized by category and summarized. We provide a brief reflection of the research and progress in artificial organs intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of these technologies and methods. Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level". Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration from all over the world...
January 24, 2019: Artificial Organs
Ali Rahmani, Samad Nadri, Seyed Habib Kazemi, Yousef Mortazavi, Mahdi Sojoodi
An electrical stimulus is a new approach to neural differentiation of stem cells. In this work, the neural differentiation of conjunctiva mesenchymal stem cells (CJMSCs) on a new 3D conductive fibrous scaffold of silk fibroin (SF) and reduced graphene oxide (rGo) were examined. rGo (3.5%w/w) was dispersed in SF-acid formic solution (10% w/v) and conductive nanofibrous scaffold was fabricated using the electrospinning method. SEM and TEM microscopy were used for fibrous scaffold characterization. CJMSCs were cultured on the scaffold and two electrical impulse models (Current 1: 115 V/m, 100 Hz frequency and current 2: 115v/m voltages, 0...
January 23, 2019: Artificial Organs
Yaron D Barac, Jacob N Schroder, Muath Bishawi, Chetan B Patel, Carmelo A Milano, Mani A Daneshmand
Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) is often used to support patients in decompensated heart failure. Placement of the IABP via the axillary artery facilitates long term support with the device and may allow for the conversion of an acute heart failure (HF) patient into a chronic HF patient by using a modified weaning protocol; allowing for medical symptom management and removal of mechanical support. We will discuss strategies for supporting these complicated patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
January 23, 2019: Artificial Organs
Mohammad M Faghih, M Keith Sharp
Two limitations have been discovered in the derivation of the Eulerian method of hemolysis prediction using a linearized blood damage function. First is that in the transformation from the Lagrangian material volume of the original power-law model to a fixed Eulerian control volume, the spatial dependence of duration of exposure to fluid stress was neglected. This omission has the implication that the Eulerian method as reported is valid only for steady, uniaxial flow in which velocity is constant along streamlines...
January 17, 2019: Artificial Organs
Jangho Park, Seong Hoon Kim, Sang-Jae Park
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2019: Artificial Organs
Martin Aman, Matthias E Sporer, Clemens Gstoettner, Cosima Prahm, Christian Hofer, Winfried Mayr, Dario Farina, Oskar C Aszmann
Even though the hand comprises only 1% of our body weight, about 30% of our central nervous systems (CNS) capacity is related to its control. The loss of a hand thus presents not only the loss of the most important tool allowing us to interact with our environment, but also leaves a dramatic sensory-motor deficit that challenges our CNS. Reconstruction of hand function is therefore not only an essential part of restoring body integrity and functional wholeness but also closes the loop of our neural circuits diminishing phantom sensation and neural pain...
January 17, 2019: Artificial Organs
Prashant N Mohite, Balakrishnan Mahesh, Anna Reed, Andre Simon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 14, 2019: Artificial Organs
Nirav Patel, Jonathan A Hammond, Jason Gluck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2019: Artificial Organs
Vakhtang Tchantchaleishvili, Simon Maltais, Shashank Sharma, Nicholas A Haglund, Mary E Davis, Jennifer Cowger, Palak Shah, Shashank S Desai, Keith D Aaronson, Francis D Pagani, Shannon M Dunlay, John M Stulak
BACKGROUND: Various risk models with differing discriminatory power and predictive accuracy have been used to predict right ventricular failure (RVF) after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) placement. There remains an unmet need for a contemporary risk score for continuous flow (CF)-LVADs. We sought to independently validate and compare existing risk models in a large cohort of patients and develop a simple, yet highly predictive risk score for acute, severe RVF. METHODS: Data from the Mechanical Circulatory Support Research Network (MCSRN) registry, consisting of patients who underwent CF-LVAD implantation, were randomly divided into equal-sized derivation and validation samples...
December 28, 2018: Artificial Organs
Shujie Yan, Yu Zhao, Song Lou
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate whether processing residual pump blood with ultrafiltration could increase the increment of hemoglobin after residual pump blood reinfusion and evaluate its influence on plasma free hemoglobin(pFHb) level and postoperative renal function. METHOD: Sixty adult patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were assigned to two groups, based on pump blood processing strategy: ultrafiltration plus reinfusion (n = 30) or reinfusion (control; n = 30)...
December 27, 2018: Artificial Organs
Shigang Wang, Allen R Kunselman, Akif Ündar
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to do an in-vitro evaluation of venous line pressure using different venous line lengths and venous cannula sizes in pediatric venoarterial extracorporeal life support (VA-ECLS) and venovenous ECLS (VV-ECLS) circuits. METHODS: The pediatric VA-ECLS circuit consisted of a Xenios i-cor diagonal pump, a Maquet Quadrox-i pediatric oxygenator, a Medtronic Biomedicus arterial cannula, a Biomedicus venous cannula, and 1/4" ID arterial and venous tubing...
December 27, 2018: Artificial Organs
Matthias F Menne, Jan W Schrickel, Georg Nickenig, Baravan Al-Kassou, Dominik Nelles, Thomas Schmitz-Rode, Ulrich Steinseifer, Ole De Backer, Alexander Sedaghat
Endoluminal left atrial appendage occlusion is an emerging therapy to treat patients suffering from atrial fibrillation with contraindications against oral anticoagulation. Different occlusion devices have been introduced into the clinical setting while comparative studies between the devices are sparse. This in vitro study compares several endoluminal left atrial appendage occlusion systems regarding 2 mechanical properties: radial (RF) and tug force (TF). Seven different occluder systems of various sizes (24 in total) underwent testing throughout their recommended sizing range...
December 27, 2018: Artificial Organs
Rodolfo Weinert, Eduardo Pereira, Airton Ramos
This article presents experimental and computational results of electroporation in rat liver. The experiments were performed using different forms of electrodes and waveforms of applied electric pulses. For the numerical simulation, the electroporation model proposed by Ramos and Weinert in a previous publication was used. Dynamic adjustments were used for obtaining a good modeling of the electric current. A single set of model parameters was obtained to fit the simulated current response for different waveforms and electrodes...
December 27, 2018: Artificial Organs
Mohammad M Faghih, M Keith Sharp
A long-standing goal in the field of biofluid mechanics has been to reliably predict hemolysis across the wide range of flows that can occur in prosthetic cardiovascular devices. A scalar representation of the complex three-dimensional fluid stresses that are exerted on cells is an attractive alternative for the simplicity that it lends to the computations. The appropriateness of the commonly-used von-Mises-like scalar stress as a universal hemolysis scaling parameter was previously evaluated, finding that erythrocyte membrane tensions calculated for laminar shear and extensional flows and for four cases of turbulent flow were widely divergent for the same value of scalar stress...
December 27, 2018: Artificial Organs
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