Curative treatment with extracts of Bombax ceiba fruit reduces risk of calcium oxalate urolithiasis in rats

N B Gadge, S S Jalalpure
Pharmaceutical Biology 2012, 50 (3): 310-7

CONTEXT: Drawbacks of presently available treatments for urolithiasis necessitate finding the treatment of hyperoxaluria specifically aimed at reduction in oxalate excretion. Interestingly, many Indian tribes use Bombax ceiba L. (Bombacaceae) fruits as a traditional medicine for the treatment of urinary stones.

OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the efficacy of B. ceiba fruit extracts as curative agents in experimentally induced calcium oxalate urolithiatic rats.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Calcium oxalate lithiasis was induced in rats by oral administration of 0.75% ethylene glycol for 14 consecutive days. Treatments with aqueous and ethanol extract of B. ceiba fruit (400 mg/kg body weight) was performed in the same manner for further 14 consecutive days. Cystone (750 mg/kg body weight) was used as reference antiurolithiatic drug. The urinary excretion and kidney deposition of offending salt components, and serum biochemical parameters were investigated.

RESULTS: Oral administration of ethylene glycol resulted in hyperoxaluria and increased renal excretion of calcium and phosphate. However, supplementation with aqueous and ethanol extracts of B. ceiba fruit significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the elevated urinary oxalate, showing a regulatory action on endogenous oxalate synthesis. The increased deposition of stone forming constituents in kidneys of calculogenic rats was also significantly lowered with curative treatment of aqueous and ethanol extract.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the fruit of B. ceiba is endowed with lithontriptic activity warranting further development for curative treatment of urolithiasis.

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