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Pharmaceutical Biology

Maria Ruth B Pineda-Cortel, Rachel Joy R Cabantog, Paulo M Caasi, Charles Anson D Ching, Joseph Benjamin S Perez, Paulo Gabriel M Godisan, Cheska Marie G Latorre, Danielle R Lucero, Reginald B Salonga
CONTEXT: Dengue control may be done by targeting its vector. In this study, we used Artocarpus blancoi (Elm.) Merr. (Moraceae) leaves, an endemic hematophagous insect repellent as a larvicide and ovicide. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the larvicidal and ovicidal activities of its soluble crude ethanol extract and the hexane, aqueous, and ethyl acetate fractions against Aedes aegypti. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Third to early fourth instar A. aegypti larvae were exposed to 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 ppm of crude ethanol; to 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 ppm of ethyl acetate; and to 500, 750, 1000, 1250 and 1500 ppm of hexane fractions of A...
December 2019: Pharmaceutical Biology
Yuanyuan Meng, Yong Liu, Ningning Fang, Yongmin Guo
CONTEXT: Cassia semen (Cs), a seed of Cassia obtusifolia L. (Leguminosae), is a popular functional beverage. Previous studies reported that Cs displayed antioxidant, antifungal and strong liver protective effects. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the hepatoprotective effects of Cs on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-two male Wistar rats raised with high-fat diet (HFD) were randomly allotted into model, metformin (0...
December 2019: Pharmaceutical Biology
Keun-Hyeun Lee, Dabin Choi, Seung-Il Jeong, Sang-Jun Kim, Chang Hyun Lee, Hyung-Sik Seo, Han-Sol Jeong
CONTEXT: Eclipta prostrata L. (Asteraceae) (EP) has been widely used for the treatment of skin disease in Asian traditional medicine. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the potency of EP in promoting hair growth in vivo and in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6N mice were divided into four groups (n = 4) as follows: control (topical treatment of normal saline), topical 3% minoxidil to the dorsal skin of mice for 14 days, and low (1 mg/day) and high (10 mg/day) doses of EP orally administered once a day for 14 days...
December 2019: Pharmaceutical Biology
Hong Wu, Shuibo Gao, Susumu Terakawa
CONTEXT: Fucoidan, a sulphated polysaccharide extracted from brown algae [Fucus vesiculosus Linn. (Fucaceae)], has multiple biological activities. OBJECTIVE: The effects of fucoidan on Ca2+ responses of rat neurons and its probable mechanisms with focus on glutamate receptors were examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The neurons isolated from the cortex and hippocampi of Wistar rats in postnatal day 1 were employed. The intracellular Ca2+ responses triggered by various stimuli were measured in vitro by Fura-2/AM...
December 2019: Pharmaceutical Biology
Yinghao Wang, Zhihuang Chen, Chen Liu, Xuehua Lu, Ce Yang, Songping Qiu
CONTEXT: Notopterygium incisum Ting ex H. T. Chang (Umbelliferae) (NI) specializes in treatment of upper limb rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but the exact mechanism is unclear. P2Xs are useful targets for inflammatory pain therapy. It led us to hypothesize that NI may preferentially act on particular P2Xs and these receptors may be unevenly distributed in the upper/lower limb. OBJECTIVE: To investigate P2Xs distribution in the upper/lower limb and NI's targets in upper limb RA...
December 2019: Pharmaceutical Biology
Haiyan Yang, Rui Zhang, Chen Jia, Mengyu Chen, Wen Yin, Liming Wei, Haisheng Jiao
CONTEXT: Epilepsy is a common life-threatening neurological disorder that is often drug-resistant and associated with cognitive impairment. The traditional Chinese patent medicine Songling Xuemaikang capsules (SXC) is clinically used for epilepsy therapy and alleviation of cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the neuronal protective effect of SXC combined with carbamazepine (CBZ) on epilepsy and cognitive impairment in kainic acid-kindled SD rats...
December 2019: Pharmaceutical Biology
Bong Kyun Park, Chang Won Kim, Jeong Eun Kwon, Manorma Negi, Yong Tae Koo, Sang Hun Lee, Dong Hyun Baek, Yoo Hun Noh, Se Chan Kang
CONTEXT: Lespedeza cuneata G. Don (Fabaceae), has been used as a traditional treatment of various diseases. There is a report L. cuneata effects on hormone replacement therapy for endocrine-related disease. However, studies related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) have not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: The effects of L. cuneata aqueous extract (LCW) on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia (TPH) were examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats (10 weeks, 330-350 g) were randomly divided to 6 groups (n = 6): Control group; TPH group (3 mg/kg, s...
December 2019: Pharmaceutical Biology
Samantha Bedell, Jacob Wells, Qinfeng Liu, Chris Breivogel
CONTEXT: Nicotine, a bioactive component of tobacco, is highly addictive. Numerous therapies have been developed for smoking cessation, and all have met with limited success. Our laboratory has previously shown that an extract of Passiflora incarnata Linn. (Passifloraceae) antagonized the expression of nicotine locomotor sensitization in rats. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the ability of vitexin, a flavonoid found in P. incarnata, to ameliorate the signs of nicotine sensitization in rats...
December 2019: Pharmaceutical Biology
Suhyeon Kim, Kyungae Jo, Ki-Bae Hong, Sung Hee Han, Hyung Joo Suh
CONTEXT: γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter and it is well established that activation of GABAA receptors favours sleep. l-Theanine, a naturally occurring amino acid first discovered in green tea, is a well-known anti-anxiety supplement with proven relaxation benefits. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the potential synergistic sleep enhancement effect of GABA/l-theanine mixture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pentobarbital-induced sleep test was applied to find proper concentration for sleep-promoting effect in ICR mice...
December 2019: Pharmaceutical Biology
Yun Mi Lee, Eunjung Son, Seung-Hyung Kim, Ohn Soon Kim, Dong-Seon Kim
CONTEXT: Mollugo pentaphylla L. (Molluginaceae) extract (MPE) has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effect on MSU-induced gouty arthritis in a mouse model. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the anti-inflammatory activities of an MPE in vitro and anti-osteoarthritis effects on monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritis (OA) in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The dried whole plants of M. pentaphylla were extracted with 70% ethanol under reflux...
December 2019: Pharmaceutical Biology
Amina Chniguir, Fatma Zioud, Viviana Marzaioli, Jamel El-Benna, Rafik Bachoual
CONTEXT: Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry (Myrtaceae), commonly known as clove, originally found in the Muluku Islands in East Indonesia, is widely used as a spice and has numerous medicinal properties. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the antioxidant potential of S. aromaticum aqueous extract (SAAE) in vitro and its protective effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung inflammation in mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Neutrophils were isolated from healthy donors and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured by luminol-amplified chemiluminescence...
December 2019: Pharmaceutical Biology
Abdullah S Shatoor, Suliman Al Humayed, Mahmoud A Alkhateeb, Khalid A Shatoor, Hussain Aldera, Mohammed Alassiri, Ali A Shati
CONTEXT: Crataegus aronia (Willd.) Bosc (Rosaceae) (syn. Azarolus L) is traditionally used to treat cardiovascular disorders. OBJECTIVES: To investigate C. aronia protection against a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced vascular inflammation in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar Male rats (180-220 g) were divided (n = 10/group) as control fed a standard diet (STD), STD + C. aronia (200 mg/kg, orally), HFD, HFD + C. aronia and HFD post-treated with C...
December 2019: Pharmaceutical Biology
Haoyue Yang, Ronge Xing, Song Liu, Huahua Yu, Pengcheng Li
CONTEXT: Compounds to treat hypothyroidism in the absence of cardiac side effects are urgently required. In this regard, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has gained interest due to its anti-anxiolytic, antihypertensive and antioxidant properties, and reported benefits to the thyroid system. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the ability of GABA to ameliorate fluoride-induced thyroid injury in mice, and investigated the mechanism(s) associated with GABA-induced protection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male Kumning mice (N = 90) were exposed to NaF (50 mg/kg) for 30 days as a model of hypothyroidism...
December 2019: Pharmaceutical Biology
Yan Gao, Rongrong Fu, Jue Wang, Xue Yang, Lulu Wen, Juan Feng
CONTEXT: Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) has a high morbidity and mortality rate. Resveratrol possesses numerous biological properties including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities. OBJECTIVE: The current experiment investigates the neuroprotective efficacy of resveratrol (RESV) against HIE by modulating Nrf2/HO-1 pathway in neonatal rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven-day-old pups (n = 48) were divided into four groups...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Yanbo Fan, Wei Xiong, Jingjing Li, Aimin Hu, Zhiwei He, Jiawen Zhang, Guoyun Zhou, Qiang Yin
CONTEXT: TangGanJian (TGJ) has a curative effect in the clinical treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), while the mechanism involved in the treatment process remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study details the mechanism of TGJ on the treatment of NAFLD with T2DM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: NAFLD was induced in T2DM rat model. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups: Group I (control), Group II (model), Group III (pioglitazone, 0...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Widad Ben Bakrim, Laila El Bouzidi, Jean-Marc Nuzillard, Sylvian Cretton, Noémie Saraux, Aymeric Monteillier, Philippe Christen, Muriel Cuendet, Khalid Bekkouche
CONTEXT: Withania (Solanaceae) species are known to be a rich source of withanolides, which have shown several biological properties. OBJECTIVE: To identify the compounds responsible for Withania adpressa Coss. antioxidant activity and further test them for their NF-κB inhibition and antiproliferative activity in multiple myeloma cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Compounds were obtained from the EtOAc extract of W. adpressa leaves. Structure elucidation was carried out mainly by 1D- and 2D-NMR, and mass spectrometry...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Jiayuan Jiao, Jiming Wu, Jiali Wang, Yaping Guo, Le Gao, Honggang Liang, Jian Huang, Jinhui Wang
CONTEXT: Ma Huang Tang (MHT) has been used to treat influenza, fever, bronchial asthma, etc. as a traditional Chinese medication. However, the anti-inflammation mechanism of MHT remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The study identifies the possible mechanisms of MHT on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced acute bronchial asthma in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, an asthma-related protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed. And then, the acute bronchial asthma mice models were established by exposing to aerosolized 1% ovalbumin for 30 min/day for 1 week, and the mice were administered 2...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Shuang Zhu, Qiwei Li, Shanchong Chen, Yesheng Wang, Lin Zhou, Changqing Zeng, Jun Dong
CONTEXT: The plant genus Uncaria (Rubiaceae), also known as Gouteng, is the source of an important traditional Chinese medicine. Misidentification and adulteration of Gouteng affect the safety and efficacy of the medication. Phylogenetic relationships among the species of this genus are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The present study sought to detect the phylogenetic relationships based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of all 12 species of Uncaria recorded in the Flora of China...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Chen Fan, Xufang Zhang, Zee Upton
CONTEXT: Shikonin (SHI), an active component extracted from Radix Arnebiae, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties in various cells. However, its effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of SHI on the expression of inflammatory related cytokines in LPS-stimulated hPDLCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of SHI (0.125, 0.25, 0...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
Dongxiao Cui, Tingting Liang, Liqian Sun, Liqiang Meng, Congcong Yang, Liwei Wang, Taigang Liang, Qingshan Li
CONTEXT: Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) have attracted worldwide attention due to their unique properties and potential bioactivities. Considering that hawthorn is both a traditional medicine and a common edible food, hawthorn fruit extract (HE) was chosen as a reductant to prepare SeNPs. OBJECTIVE: SeNPs were synthesized by using an aqueous HE as a reductant and stabilizer. The antitumor activities and potential mechanisms of SeNPs were explored by using a series of cellular assays...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
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