[Effects of simvastatin plus all-trans retinoic acid on WT1/hDMP1 gene expression profiles of human promyelocytic leukemia cell line NB4]

Ting-xiu Jiang, Wei-ying Gu, Guo-qiang Qiu, Zi-xing Chen, Zhi-lin Wang, Hao-qing Wu, Xiao-ying Hua, Bai He, Wei Wu, Xiao-bao Xie, Xiang-shan Cao
Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal] 2011 July 12, 91 (26): 1856-60

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of simvastatin (SV) plus all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on the proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and WT1/hDMP1 gene expression profiles of human promyelocytic leukemia cell line NB4.

METHODS: The NB4 cell was incubated with simvastatin and ATRA alone or in combination. And the NB4 cell without any treatment was adopted as a normal control. The cells of different groups were collected at 24, 48 and 72 h post-incubation. Their morphological changes were observed after Wright staining. The method of MTT was employed to assay the growth inhibition rate and flow cytometry was used to detect the early-stage ratios of apoptosis and cell necrosis. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the WT1/hDMP1 gene expression levels.

RESULTS: The cell inhibition rates increased gradually (F = 7.15, P = 0.000) at 15, 10 and 5 µmol/L SV respectively. And so did the expression levels of CD11b (F = 3.41, P = 0.014) and Annexin-V (F = 43.38, P = 0.000). However the expression levels of WT1 decreased gradually (F = 5.35, P = 0.001) reversely with the elevated levels of hDMP1 (F = 22.61, P = 0.000). Furthermore the NB4 cell exhibited the most significant changes at 15 µmol/L SV. After a 72-hour incubation, the expression levels of CD11b (89.46% ± 9.13%)and hDMP1 (626.9 ± 56.9) in NB4 cells at 15 µmol/L SV plus 0.5 µmol/L ATRA were significantly higher than those with ATRA(71.27% ± 7.27%, P = 0.000 and 421.8 ± 38.3, P = 0.003 in each) and SV alone(62.41% ± 6.37%, P = 0.003 and 241.4 ± 21.9, P = 0.003 in each). A combination of 15 µmol/L SV with 0.5 µmol/L ATRA displayed obvious interactions with the expressions of CD11b and hDMP1 (F = 4.09, P = 0.025 and F = 29.58, P = 0.000 in each). And there was no significant interaction for cell inhibition rates and Annexin-V expression.

CONCLUSION: Simvastatin in vitro inhibits the proliferation of NB4 cell, induces its differentiation and promotes its apoptosis. And the lowered expression of WT1 has a dose-dependent correlation with the elevated expression of hDMP1. It indicates that simvastatin has the synergistic in vitro anti-promyelocytic potency.

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