Prevalence and characterization of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates in Mexico

Jesus Silva-Sanchez, Humberto Barrios, Fernando Reyna-Flores, Margarita Bello-Diaz, Alejandro Sanchez-Perez, Teresa Rojas, Ulises Garza-Ramos
Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease 2011, 17 (4): 497-505
The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in a collection of 226 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates and characterize the qnr-positive isolates. The rate of qnr-positive isolates was 21.6% (49/226), 49.5% for aac(6')-Ib-cr (112/226), and 1.7% for qepA1 (4/226). Those isolates carried qnr genes corresponding to types qnrB (71.4%), qnrS1 (24.4%), and qnrA1 (18.3%). The distribution among bacterial species was as follows: 55.8% (19/34) to Enterobacter cloacae, 50% (28/56) to Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 1.4% (2/136) to Escherichia coli. The characterization of qnr-positive isolates indicated the ESBL SHV-types as the most prevalent (81.6%), including the ESBLs SHV-12, SHV-5, and SHV-2a, followed by CTX-M-15 (44.9%) and TLA-1 (8.1%). In addition, for qnr-positive isolates, the prevalence of aac(6')-Ib-cr was 55.1%, but qepA was not identified. Alterations at codons Ser-83 and Asp-87 in GyrA and at codons Ser-80 in ParC were observed in 69% and 80% of the qnr-positive isolates, respectively. The analysis of the transconjugants revealed a cotransmission of bla(CTX-M-15) with qepA1 or aac(6')-Ib-cr and/or qnrA1 and bla(SHV-type) with qnrB5 and qnrB6 genes. To conclude, these findings indicate a high prevalence of qnr and aac(6')-Ib-cr among ESBL-producing isolates from Mexican hospitals and point to the wide spread of qnr-like determinants associated to ESBLs SHV- and CTX-M-type in Mexican clinical isolates.

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