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Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30785845/impact-of-farnesol-as-a-modulator-of-efflux-pumps-in-a-fluconazole-resistant-strain-of-candida-albicans
#1
Lucia Černáková, Stanislava Dižová, Dana Gášková, Iva Jančíková, Helena Bujdáková
AIM: This work studied the impact of the quorum-sensing molecule, farnesol (FAR), on fluconazole (FLC)-resistant Candida albicans isolate CY 1123 compared with the susceptible standard strain C. albicans SC5314. The genes encoding efflux pumps belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and major facilitator superfamilies, together with overexpression or point mutation of the ERG11 gene, are the main resistance mechanisms to azole antifungal drugs. RESULTS: The upregulation of genes coding for CDR1, CDR2, and MDR1 were confirmed by qPCR with respect to the housekeeping gene ACT1 in the resistant strain...
February 20, 2019: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30785843/development-of-a-luminex-xtag-assay-for-the-rapid-detection-of-five-aminoglycoside-resistance-genes-both-in-staphylococci-and-enterococci
#2
Fengjiao Xu, Jinhe Chen, Cuiyan Xiao, Feng Cong, Lei Ma, Robert J Moore, Ren Huang, Pengju Guo
Resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics is now common in pathogenic bacteria, making treatment of infections difficult. The rapid spread of resistance is mainly related to the dissemination of genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs). Staphylococci and enterococci are opportunistic human pathogens capable of causing a wide range of infections. Isolates from clinical cases are often found to be resistant to aminoglycosides. The aim of the present study was to develop a bead-based xTAG assay for the simultaneous detection of five prevalent aminoglycoside resistance genes in staphylococci and enterococci, including aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia, aph(3')-IIIa, ant(4')-Ia, ant(9)-Ia, and ant(6)-Ia...
February 20, 2019: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30785836/high-rate-of-serotype-switching-and-genetic-variations-indicates-widespread-recombination-between-clinical-and-commensal-penicillin-nonsusceptible-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-tehran
#3
Malihe Talebi, Javad Sadeghi, Ali Ahmadi, Vahid Lohrasbi, Parviz Owlia, Mohammad Reza Pourshafie
A total of 161 Streptococcus pneumoniae were collected between 2013 and 2015 in Tehran, Iran. The strains were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentrations, serotyped, and genotyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) were also typed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PBP-RFLP). Out of 161 strains, 32 isolates (20%) were highly resistant to penicillin. The most frequent serotypes among the penicillin-nonsusceptible S...
February 20, 2019: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30785833/robustness-of-the-line-probe-assay-for-the-rapid-diagnosis-and-characterization-of-mutations-in-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#4
Marilyn M Ninan, Priscilla Rupali, Prince James, Joy S Michael
INTRODUCTION: Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDRTB) is a public health concern. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of Genotype® MTBDRsl for detection of resistance to fluoroquinolones (FQs) and second-line injectable drugs (SLIDs) and characterized mutations seen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MTBDRsl was carried out either directly on sputum samples or indirectly on culture isolates (n = 100) from known multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) patients from July 2015 to September 2017...
February 20, 2019: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767721/comparative-analysis-of-antimicrobial-resistance-integrons-and-virulence-genes-among-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-positive-laribacter-hongkongensis-from-edible-frogs-and-freshwater-fish
#5
Ling Wang, Leiwen Fu, Zhihua Liu, Huijie Guo, Li Wang, Mei Feng, Yaqing He, Qing Chen, Jing Hu
Aquatic animals are now recognized to be major hosts of potentially pathogenic Laribacter hongkongensis. A comparative study was carried out among extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing L. hongkongensis isolated from frogs (47 isolates) and fish (41 isolates) to examine phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance profiles, integrons, virulence factors, and genetic relatedness. Isolates from frogs showed a higher incidence of antibiotic resistance compared with those from fish for most of the antimicrobials tested, especially trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and streptomycin...
February 15, 2019: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30762476/a-distinct-geographic-variant-of-sasx-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-st239-and-st368-lineage-from-south-india
#6
Yamuna Devi Bakthavatchalam, Hariharan Triplicane Dwarakanathan, Elakkiya Munusamy, Lydia Jennifer, Balaji Veeraraghavan
Staphylococcal surface protein sasX is a colonization mediating virulence factor in ST239 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains, which potentially contribute to its successful establishment. We aimed to study the presence and dissemination of sasX in clinical MRSA isolates and among MRSA carriers. A total of 450 nonduplicate clinical MRSA isolates recovered from blood cultures between 2013 and 2017 were included in this study. In addition, 93 nasal swabs were collected from patients receiving hemodialysis, after obtaining consent and screening for MRSA colonization...
February 14, 2019: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30762463/linezolid-consumption-facilitates-the-development-of-linezolid-resistance-in-enterococcus-faecalis-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-a-5-year-surveillance-study
#7
Bing Bai, Kaitao Hu, Jun Zeng, Weiming Yao, Duoyun Li, Zhangya Pu, Zhong Chen, Hang Cheng, Jinxin Zheng, Weiguang Pan, Zhiwei Lin, Lixia Xie, Qiwen Deng, Zhijian Yu
Although case reports and clinical studies of linezolid (LZD)-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (LREF) have gradually increased in recent years, the relationship between LZD resistance and antibiotic consumption in hospital settings still remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the dynamic relationship between the yearly detection frequency of LREF clinical isolates and yearly consumption of LZD and vancomycin (VCM) over a 5-year period in a Chinese hospital setting. Antibiotic consumption data (LZD and VCM) from 2011 to 2015 were obtained from a computerized database and recalculated as the defined daily doses (DDDs) per 100 bed-days (DBD)...
February 14, 2019: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30741600/impact-of-pyridyl-moieties-on-the-inhibitory-properties-of-prominent-acyclic-metal-chelators-against-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-investigating-the-molecular-basis-of-acyclic-metal-chelators-activity
#8
Sphelele C Sosibo, Anou M Somboro, Daniel G Amoako, John Osei Sekyere, Linda A Bester, Jane C Ngila, Darren D Sun, Hezekiel M Kumalo
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CREs)-mediated infections remain a huge public health concern. CREs produce enzymes such as metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs), which inactivate β-lactam antibiotics. Hence, developing efficient molecules capable of inhibiting these enzymes remains a way forward to overcoming this phenomenon. In this study, we demonstrate that pyridyl moieties favor the inhibitory activity of cyclic metal-chelating agents through in vitro screening, molecular modeling, and docking assays...
February 11, 2019: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30741597/structural-and-microbiological-characterization-of-5-hydroxy-3-7-4-trimethoxyflavone-a-flavonoid-isolated-from-vitex-gardneriana-schauer-leaves
#9
Iasminy Macedo, João H da Silva, Priscila T da Silva, Beatriz G Cruz, Jean P C do Vale, Hélcio S Dos Santos, Paulo N Bandeira, Elnatan B de Souza, Maria R Xavier, Henrique D M Coutinho, Raimundo Braz-Filho, Alexandre M R Teixeira
INTRODUCTION: Staphylococcus aureus represents the most common etiologic agent of purulent infections, affecting humans and animals. Escherichia coli is one of the principal causes of infectious diseases, mainly diarrheal diseases due to enterotoxin action. There are many reports indicating that these bacteria are multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial and modulatory activities of 5-hydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (VG...
February 11, 2019: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30724694/high-rates-of-fosfomycin-resistance-in-gram-negative-urinary-isolates-from-israel
#10
Avi Peretz, Basel Naamneh, Linda Tkhawkho, Orna Nitzan
BACKGROUND: Increasing antimicrobial resistance is a major problem worldwide. Many urinary tract infection (UTI) isolates are resistant to all oral antimicrobial agents, necessitating intravenous treatment even for cystitis. Fosfomycin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that achieves high and prolonged urinary drug concentration and is considered first-line treatment for uncomplicated cystitis. Our aim was to investigate fosfomycin susceptibility among urinary isolates and search for demographic or bacterial characteristics associated with fosfomycin nonsusceptibility...
February 6, 2019: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30702389/comparison-of-naturally-occurring-resistance-associated-substitutions-between-2008-and-2016-in-chinese-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#11
Wei Huang, Mingjie Wang, Qiming Gong, Demin Yu, Peizhan Chen, Junyu Lin, Yue Han, Yu Su, Lihong Qu, Xinxin Zhang
AIMS: The presence of pre-existing hepatitis C virus (HCV) resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) could attenuate viral susceptibility to direct-acting antiviral agents. The aim of this study was to better understand the differences among HCV RASs over time. We compared the prevalence and characteristics of naturally occurring HCV RASs in the NS3, NS5A, and NS5B genes between 2008 and 2016 in Chinese patients chronically infected with HCV genotypes (GT) 1b, 2a, 3a, 3b, and 6a. METHODS: HCV RNA was extracted after serum samples were collected from 242 patients at treatment baseline, including 120 samples in 2008 and 122 samples in 2016...
January 31, 2019: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30698495/antimicrobial-resistance-and-biofilm-formation-in-enterococcus-spp-isolated-from-humans-and-turkeys-in-poland
#12
Anna Woźniak-Biel, Gabriela Bugla-Płoskońska, Jakub Burdzy, Kamila Korzekwa, Sebastian Ploch, Alina Wieliczko
Enterococci are a natural component of the intestinal flora of many organisms, including humans and birds. As opportunistic pathogens, they can cause fatal infections of the urinary tract and endocarditis in humans, whereas in poultry symptoms are joint disease, sepsis, and falls in the first week of life. The study covered 107 Enterococcus strains-56 isolated from humans and 51 from turkeys. Among the isolates investigated Enterococcus faecalis was detected in 80.36% of human and 80.39% of turkey samples. Enterococcus faecium was identified in 8...
January 30, 2019: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30694735/in-vitro-activity-of-tedizolid-in-comparison-with-other-oral-and-intravenous-agents-against-a-collection-of-community-acquired-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-2014-2015-in-the-united-states
#13
Michael A Pfaller, Helio S Sader, Paul R Rhomberg, Robert K Flamm, Rodrigo E Mendes
Tedizolid activity was compared with other agents with oral and intravenous formulations against community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA). Tedizolid (MIC50/90 , 0.12/0.12 mg/L; 100.0% susceptible) was the most potent agent tested against CA-MRSA and subsets from adult and pediatric patients. Tedizolid minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were twofold to fourfold lower than daptomycin (MIC50/90 , 0.25/0.5 mg/L; 99.9-100% susceptible) and fourfold to eightfold lower than linezolid (MIC50/90 , 1/1 mg/L; 100...
January 29, 2019: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30694723/prevalence-and-genetic-characteristics-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-isolated-from-oral-cavity-of-healthy-children-in-japan
#14
Mina Hirose, Meiji Soe Aung, Atsushi Fukuda, Yukie Murata, Masato Saitoh, Nobumichi Kobayashi
Prevalence and genetic characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and coagulase-negative staphylococci in oral cavity of healthy children were studied in Hokkaido, northern main island of Japan. From saliva of 526 children, a total of 248 staphylococcal isolates comprising S. aureus (n = 143), S. epidermidis (n = 84), S. warneri (n = 13), S. haemolyticus (n = 5), S. hominis (n = 2), and S. intermedius (n = 1) were recovered. Presence of mecA was confirmed in 6...
January 29, 2019: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30681401/high-prevalence-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-gram-negative-bacteria-isolated-from-clinical-settings-in-egypt-recalling-for-judicious-use-of-conventional-antimicrobials-in-developing-nations
#15
Hazim O Khalifa, Ahmed M Soliman, Ashraf M Ahmed, Toshi Shimamoto, Hirofumi Nariya, Tetsuya Matsumoto, Tadashi Shimamoto
This study was designed to investigate, at the molecular level, the antimicrobial resistance mechanisms of different antimicrobial resistance genes, including, extended-spectrum β-lactamases, AmpC β-lactamases, class 1 and 2 integrons, and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes of Gram-negative bacteria isolated from clinical settings in Egypt. A total of 126 nonduplicate Gram-negative isolates were recovered from different clinical samples taken from hospitalized patients in Egypt in 2014. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that, 93...
January 25, 2019: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30676886/fluoroquinolone-resistant-streptococcus-agalactiae-invasive-isolates-recovered-in-argentina
#16
Bárbara Arias, Verónica Kovacec, Laura Vigliarolo, Mariana Suárez, Carina Tersigni, Loana Müller, Horacio Lopardo, Laura Bonofiglio, Marta Mollerach
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus agalactiae or group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an important pathogen in neonates and nonpregnant individuals. Epidemiological studies of GBS resistance to fluoroquinolones (FQs) in Latin America are scarce. This study aimed to determine the local prevalence of FQ resistance in the frame of a national, prospective multicenter study of invasive GBS infections and to investigate mechanisms of resistance, serotype distribution, and clonal relationships among resistant isolates...
January 24, 2019: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30676875/association-between-pneumococcal-surface-protein-a-family-and-genetic-antimicrobial-resistance-traits-of-non-invasive-pneumococcal-isolates-from-adults-in-northern-japan
#17
Mitsuyo Kawaguchiya, Noriko Urushibara, Meiji Soe Aung, Satoshi Habadera, Masahiko Ito, Kenji Kudo, Nobumichi Kobayashi
Pneumococcal isolates from adult patients in northern Japan in 2016 were subjected to molecular investigation related to pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) and drug resistance determinants. Of the 51 isolates, serotype 3/ST180 was the most prevalent (17.6%), followed by 35B (ST2755/ST558) (11.8%) and 15A (ST63/ST7874/ST13068/ST13785) (9.8%). Coverage of serotypes by 13-valent conjugate vaccine and 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine was 27.5% and 49%, respectively. All the isolates expressed PspA family 1 or 2 (51% and 49%, respectively)...
January 24, 2019: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30676863/phenotypic-and-genotypic-characterization-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-asymptomatic-bacteriuria-in-pregnancy
#18
Mariam M Youssef, Hazim A Rizk, Noha A Hassuna
Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) has been consistently observed in pregnancy. However, there is a paucity of data on the prevalence and characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in ASB in pregnant women. Therefore, we sought to investigate ESBL-producing and multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in antenatal women with ASB. Urine samples were collected from 310 asymptomatic pregnant women attending primary antenatal clinics and screened for significant bacteriuria...
January 24, 2019: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30676273/antibiotic-susceptibility-and-virulence-factors-in-escherichia-coli-from-sympatric-wildlife-of-the-apuan-alps-regional-park-tuscany-italy
#19
Barbara Turchi, Marta Dec, Fabrizio Bertelloni, Stanisław Winiarczyk, Sebastian Gnat, Flavio Bresciani, Fabio Viviani, Domenico Cerri, Filippo Fratini
Today a growing number of studies are focusing on antibiotic resistance in wildlife. This is due to the potential role of wild animals as reservoirs and spreaders of pathogenic and resistant bacteria. This study focused on isolating and identifying Escherichia coli from the feces of wild animals living in the Apuan Alps Regional Park (Tuscany, Italy) and evaluating some of their antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity traits. Eighty-five fecal samples from different species were studied. Seventy-one E. coli were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry analysis, subjected to antibiograms and polymerase chain reaction for the detection of antibiotic resistance genes and pathogenicity factors...
January 24, 2019: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30676261/increased-resistance-to-carbapenems-in-proteus-mirabilis-mediated-by-amplication-of-the-bla-vim-1-carrying-and-is26-associated-class-1-integron
#20
Séverine Bontron, Laurent Poirel, Nicolas Kieffer, Encho Savov, Angelina Trifonova, Iva Todorova, Gwendoline Kueffer, Patrice Nordmann
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to decipher the mechanisms and associated genetic determinants responsible for increased carbapenem resistance among Proteus mirabilis clinical isolates. METHODS: The entire genetic structure surrounding the β-lactam resistance genes was characterized by PCR, gene walking, and DNA sequencing. RESULTS: A series of clinical P. mirabilis isolates were consecutively recovered from different patients at the Military hospital of Sofia, Bulgaria...
January 24, 2019: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
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