JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Roles of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway in leukemia therapy

L S Steelman, R A Franklin, S L Abrams, W Chappell, C R Kempf, J Bäsecke, F Stivala, M Donia, P Fagone, F Nicoletti, M Libra, P Ruvolo, V Ruvolo, C Evangelisti, A M Martelli, J A McCubrey
Leukemia 2011, 25 (7): 1080-94
21494257
The Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is often implicated in sensitivity and resistance to leukemia therapy. Dysregulated signaling through the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway is often the result of genetic alterations in critical components in this pathway as well as mutations at upstream growth factor receptors. Unrestricted leukemia proliferation and decreased sensitivity to apoptotic-inducing agents and chemoresistance are typically associated with activation of pro-survival pathways. Mutations in this pathway and upstream signaling molecules can alter sensitivity to small molecule inhibitors targeting components of this cascade as well as to inhibitors targeting other key pathways (for example, phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)) activated in leukemia. Similarly, PI3K mutations can result in resistance to inhibitors targeting the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway, indicating important interaction points between the pathways (cross-talk). Furthermore, the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway can be activated by chemotherapeutic drugs commonly used in leukemia therapy. This review discusses the mechanisms by which abnormal expression of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway can contribute to drug resistance as well as resistance to targeted leukemia therapy. Controlling the expression of this pathway could improve leukemia therapy and ameliorate human health.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
21494257
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"