A comparison of the effect of aprotinin and ε-aminocaproic acid on renal function in children undergoing cardiac surgery

Galina Leyvi, Olivia Nelson, Adam Yedlin, Michelle Pasamba, Peter F Belamarich, Singh Nair, Hillel W Cohen
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia 2011, 25 (3): 402-6

OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of renal injury among pediatric patients who received aprotinin while undergoing cardiac surgery compared with those who received ε-aminocaproic acid (EACA).

DESIGN: A retrospective observational study.

SETTING: A single academic center.

PARTICIPANTS: Pediatric cardiac patients who had cardiopulmonary bypass and received aprotinin or EACA.

INTERVENTION: Patients undergoing pediatric cardiac surgery received aprotinin from 2005 to 2007 and EACA from 2008 to 2009.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was acute kidney injury (AKI) defined as serum Cr elevation at discharge more than 1.5 times the baseline value. Secondary outcomes included bleeding, blood transfusion, and the volume of chest tube drainage in the first 24 hours postoperatively. One hundred seventy-eight patients met inclusion criteria; 120 patients received aprotinin, and 58 patients received EACA. These 2 groups did not differ significantly in age, weight, or duration of cardiac bypass. Logistic regression analysis, adjusted for confounding variables (ie, baseline Cr, sex, age, CPB time, inotropic support and vasopressors), showed a higher odds of suffering AKI at discharge with the usage of aprotinin (odds ratio = 4.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-19.5; p = 0.03). The volume of the first 24 hours of chest tube drainage was not significantly different between groups, as well as packed red blood cells and cryoprecipitate units. However, fresh frozen plasma and platelets showed statistically significant differences with more transfusion in the EACA group.

CONCLUSION: In this retrospective study, the authors observed a higher odds of AKI for aprotinin usage compared with EACA, suggesting that the known concern for adults with adverse kidney effects with aprotinin is also appropriate for pediatric patients.

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