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Acute kidney injury in critically ill patients with 2009 influenza A (H1N1) viral pneumonia: an observational study.

OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence, risk factors, and impact on mortality of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with 2009 influenza A (H1N1) viral pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation.

DESIGN: Observational cohort study.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: AKI was defined as risk, injury or failure, according to the RIFLE classification. Early and late AKI were defined as AKI occurring on intensive care unit (ICU) day 2 or before, or after ICU day 2, respectively. Demographic data and information on organ dysfunction were collected daily.

RESULTS: Of 84 patients, AKI developed in 43 patients (51%). Twenty (24%) needed renal replacement therapy. Early and late AKI were found in 28 (33%) and 15 (18%) patients, respectively. Patients with AKI, as compared with patients without AKI, had higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score and ICU mortality (72% versus 39%, p < 0.01) and presented on admission more marked cardiovascular, respiratory, and hematological dysfunction. Patients with early but not late AKI presented on admission higher APACHE II score and more marked organ dysfunction, as compared with patients without AKI. ICU mortality was higher in late versus early AKI (93% versus 61%, p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, only APACHE II score and late but not early AKI [odds ratio (OR) 1.1 (95% confidence interval 1.0-1.1) and 15.1 (1.8-130.7), respectively] were associated with mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: AKI is a frequent complication of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) viral pneumonia. AKI developing after 2 days in ICU appears to be associated with different risk factors than early AKI, and is related to a higher mortality rate.

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