The comparison of cephalometric characteristics in nonobese obstructive sleep apnea subjects and primary snorers cephalometric measures in nonobese OSA and primary snorers

Meltem Esen Akpinar, M Mazhar Celikoyar, Aytug Altundag, Ismail Kocak
European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology 2011, 268 (7): 1053-9
The objective of the study is to evaluate the cephalometric characteristics and investigate the measurement differences between habitual snorers and subjects with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in nonobese Turkish male population. The study design is prospective and nonrandomized. The setting is sleep-snoring center of referral hospital. Total of 60 male subjects constituted OSA (n = 20), habitual snorer (n = 20) and control group (n = 20). Clinical evaluation, Epworth sleepiness scale scoring, flexible nasopharyngoscopy, polysomnography, Tweed and Delaire analysis on cephalometric images were performed. The main outcome measures include cranial base maxillary angle (SNA), cranial base mandibular angle (SNB), posterior airway space (PAS), mandibular plane and hyoid distance (MPH), soft palate length, soft palate thickness, cranial height ratio (C2/C1), cranial base angle (C1⊥C3), and craniofacial angle (C3⊥F1) parameters were compared. In comparison of OSA and habitual snorers, PAS at palatal and tongue base level (p = 0.037, p = 0.001), MPH (p = 0.07), C3⊥F1 (p = 0.001) were found statistically different. In comparison of controls with OSA and habitual snorers PAS at palatal level (p < 0.001, p = 0.01), MPH (p < 0.001, p = 0.015), soft plate length (p < 0.001, p < 0.001) and thickness (p < 0.001, p = 0.056) were found statistically different. The soft palate length, PAS, C3⊥F1 and MPH were detected as the most effective four parameters in discriminating three groups. In conclusion, this study increased MPH, soft palate length and decreased PAS were identified as the determinant characteristics in OSA and habitual snoring group. PAS and MPH values reported were higher in OSA as compared to habitual snorers. The selected cephalometric data may be used as a complementary to endoscopic examination, sleep tests and imaging techniques to determine anatomic site, management plan and follow-up of outcome in habitual snorers and OSA subjects.

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