A translationally relevant thromboembolic stroke model for the study of secondary hemorrhage after thrombolysis in rats

Li Sun, Wei Zhou, Sabine Heiland, Hugo H Marti, Roland Veltkamp
Brain Research 2011 January 12, 1368: 346-54
Secondary hemorrhage after thrombolysis in ischemic stroke is an important complication, which has been difficult to study in preclinical disease models. We have established and characterized a model of thromboembolic middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Advantages of this model include a very low rate of spontaneous recanalization and good reperfusion after intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). In vivo T2* MR imaging and postmortem assays were used for quantification of secondary brain hemorrhage. In our protocol, 12 thrombin-induced autologous blood clots are injected into the internal carotid artery. No spontaneous reperfusion occurs in the first 24h. However, injection of rt-PA 2 or 4h thereafter leads to reperfusion of the MCA territory consistent infarcts, increased blood-brain barrier permeability, and secondary hemorrhage. Remarkably, clinically important factors known to affect the extent and likelihood of secondary hemorrhage such as hypertension and delayed onset of thrombolysis also increase hematoma size in the model. Thus, the model may serve to investigate the pathophysiology of thrombolysis-induced hemorrhage in thromboembolic ischemia as well as potential adjunctive therapies to prevent this complication.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"