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Brain Research

Alaa Elkordy, Sherif Rashad, Heba Shehabeldeen, Eikan Mishima, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Takaaki Abe, Teiji Tominaga
The disruption of appropriate cellular stress responses is implicated in the pathogenesis of different neurological disorders including ischemic injury. Early diagnosis and treatment are often associated with better prognosis in ischemic stroke patients. Thus, there is an urgent need to improve the speed and accuracy of stroke diagnosis by developing highly sensitive stroke biomarkers. We recently reported that transfer RNA (tRNA) was involved in cell stress response pathways. Under cell stress conditions, mature tRNA is cleaved by a specific ribonuclease, angiogenin, generating tRNA-derived stress-induced RNA (tiRNA)...
February 16, 2019: Brain Research
Rong Zhang, Weipin Zhou, Zhijun Yu, Ling Yang, Guangqi Liu, Haotian Yu, Qianyi Zhou, Zhenli Min, Chunxiang Zhang, Qingming Wu, Xia-Min Hu, Qiong Yuan
Brain stroke is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. We explored a potential stroke-related role for a newly found microRNA, miR-1247-3p, and one of its target genes, caspase-2, predicted by TargetScanVert. In the present study, we found that miR-1247-3p was downregulated during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and that LV-miR-1247-3p overexpression attenuated brain impairment induced by I/R. Similar results were observed in neuro2a (N2a) cells treated with oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)...
February 16, 2019: Brain Research
Yayoi Ikeda, Tomoko Kato-Inui, Ayako Tagami, Mamiko Maekawa
Gonadal hormones contribute to brain sexual differentiation. We analyzed expression of progesterone receptor (PR), estrogen receptor-α (ERα), ERβ, and kisspeptin, in the preoptic area (POA) and/or the arcuate nucleus (ARC), in gonad-lacking steroidogenic factor-1 knockout (KO) mice during perinatal development. At postnatal-day (P) 0-P7, POA PR levels were higher in wild-type (WT) males compared with WT females, while those in KO males were lower than in WT males and similar to those in WT and KO females...
February 15, 2019: Brain Research
Hakeem J Kadhim, Seong W Kang, Wayne J Kuenzel
Recently, in addition to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the nucleus of the hippocampal commissure (NHpC) have been proposed to regulate stress in birds due to the discovery of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in the NHpC. Expression of CRH, CRHR1, CRHR2 and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) were determined within the NHpC compared to the PVN. Additionally, two levels of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis: 1) anterior pituitary and 2) adrenal gland were examined following food deprivation (FD) stress including proopiomelanocortin (POMC) expression and plasma corticosterone (CORT), respectively...
February 14, 2019: Brain Research
Ismail O Ishola, Mmesomachukwu O Osele, Micah C Chijioke, Olufunmilayo O Adeyemi
Isorhamnetin (IRN), a 3'-O-methylated metabolite of quercetin has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. In this study, we investigated the learning and memory enhancing effects of IRN on spatial and non-spatial learning and memory deficits induced by scopolamine (3 mg/kg, i.p; muscarinic antagonist) using the novel object recognition test (NORT) and Morris water maze (MWM) task. IRN (1, 5 or 50 mg/kg, p.o.) or vehicle was administered to male albino for 3 consecutive days, scopolamine was given 1 h after last administration on day 3...
February 14, 2019: Brain Research
Debanjan Dasgupta, Sujit Kumar Sikdar
Fast spiking interneurons (FSINs) have an important role in neuronal network dynamics. Although plasticity of synaptic properties is known to affect network synchrony, the role of plasticity of FSINs' intrinsic excitability on network dynamics remain elusive. Using computational approaches in an excitatory-FSIN model network (EI) based on previously established hippocampal neuronal models we show that altered FSIN intrinsic excitability robustly affects the coherence and frequency of network firing monotonically in the connected excitatory network...
February 13, 2019: Brain Research
Chao Dai, Jing Xie, Jiaman Dai, Daqing Li, Peng T Khaw, Zhengqin Yin, Shujia Huo, Andrew Collins, Geoffrey Raisman, Ying Li
PURPOSE: To determine whether transplantation of olfactory mucosal cells (OMCs) is able to rescue the loss of optic nerve axons after the intraocular pressure (IOP) is elevated in rats. METHODS: The IOP was raised by injection of magnetic microspheres into the anterior chamber of the eye. OMCs cultured from the adult olfactory mucosa were transplanted into the region of the optic disc. RESULTS: We demonstrated that although the raised IOP returned to its normal level at six weeks, there was an irreversible 58% loss of optic nerve axons in the control group...
February 13, 2019: Brain Research
Mamoru Nagano, Keisuke Ikegami, Yoichi Minami, Yuji Kanazawa, Satoshi Koinuma, Mitsugu Sujino, Yasufumi Shigeyoshi
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the center of the mammalian circadian system. Environmental photic signals shifts the phase of the circadian rhythm in the SCN except during the dead zone, when the photic signal is gated somewhere on the way from the retina to the neurons in the SCN. Here we examined the phase of the dead zone after an abrupt delay of the LD cycles for several days by observing the mc-Fos induction in the SCN by light pulses. After an abrupt shift of the LD cycles, the dead zone showed a slow phase shift, about two hours per day, which was well corresponded with the slow phase shift of the rest-activity cycles...
February 13, 2019: Brain Research
Sascha Tafelski, Doaa Mohamed, Mohammed Shaqura, Chalid Assaf, Antje Beyer, Sascha Treskatsch, Michael Schäfer, Shaaban A Mousa
Evidence is accumulating that activation of mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid (GR) receptors on peripheral sensory neurons modulates pain sensation. While the expression and exact anatomical localization of MR and GR in the various subpopulations of peripheral sensory neurons has been shown in animals, it is still unknown for the human skin. Therefore, we aimed to identify MR and GR mRNA and protein as well as the exact subpopulations of sensory neurons in human versus rat skin. Tissue samples from rat and human skin were subjected to RT-PCR, Western blot and double immunofluorescence confocal analysis of MR and GR with the neuronal markers calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), neurofilament 200 (NF200) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)...
February 13, 2019: Brain Research
Steven C Kyle, Gordon M Burghardt, Mathew A Cooper
In several rodent species social play appears to be necessary for proper deployment of species-specific patterns of aggressive and reproductive behavior. Specifically, in male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), play has been linked to the development of adult aggression. We quantified several types of social play behavior in same-sex peer groups ofSyrian hamsters three times per week for three consecutiveweeksafter weaning, which included postnatal days 22-42 (PD22 to PD42).Male hamsters increased playful contact during PD36-PD42, whereas females showed peak playful contact during PD29-PD35...
February 12, 2019: Brain Research
Can Sun, Jian Fu, Zhenzhen Qu, Dongxiao Li, Peipei Si, Qi Qiao, Wenlin Zhang, Yan Xue, Junli Zhen, Weiping Wang
Cognitive impairment is one of the most common and disabling co-morbidities of epilepsy. It is therefore imperative to find novel treatment approaches to rescue cognitive function among epilepsy patients. Adult neurogenesis is strongly implicated in cognitive function, and mild hypoxia is known to promote the proliferation and differentiation of both embryonic and adult neural stem cells (NSCs). In the present study, we investigated the effect of mild hypoxia on cognitive function and hippocampal neurogenesis of rats with pilocarpine-induced chronic epilepsy...
February 12, 2019: Brain Research
Kayoung Joo, Kwang-Hyun Cho, Sung-Hee Youn, Hyun-Jong Jang, Duck-Joo Rhie
Neuromodulatory facilitation of long-term synaptic plasticity is important in learning, memory, and experience-dependent cortical plasticity. Although muscarinic-induced long-term depression (mLTD) in the visual cortex is well known, its cellular mechanisms are not fully understood yet. Since endocannabinoid signaling mediates presynaptic expression of LTD in various brain areas including the primary visual cortex of rats, we investigated the involvement of endocannabinoids in the induction of mLTD in different dendritic compartments of layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons...
February 9, 2019: Brain Research
Andrea Petrella, Glen Belfry, Matthew Heath
Ten minutes of aerobic or resistance training can 'boost' executive function in older adults. Here, we examined whether the magnitude of the exercise benefit is influenced by exercise intensity. Older adults (N=17: mean age=73 years) completed a volitional test to exhaustion (VO2peak ) via treadmill to determine participant-specific moderate (80% of lactate threshold (LT)), heavy (15% of the difference between LT and VO2peak ) and very-heavy (50% of the difference between LT and VO2peak ) exercise intensities...
February 9, 2019: Brain Research
Azusa Ito, Satoru Tsuda, Hiroshi Kunikata, Asano Toshihumi, Kota Sato, Toru Nakazawa
The evaluation of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death is a key part of retinal disease care. Previously, we used a Sytox Orange (SO)-based real-time imaging method to assess the RGCs in mice that underwent optic nerve crush. Here, we used N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) injury in rats to confirm our model and assess the effect of neuroprotective agents on RGCs. The rats received NMDA injury and the intravitreal injection of SO, a cell-impermeant dyeing compound that targets nucleic acid. After ten minutes, non-invasive confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy visualized damaged or dying cells...
February 9, 2019: Brain Research
Shi-Peng Li, Li-Gong Bian, Xi-Yue Fu, Qing-Long Ai, Yue Sui, Ai-Dan Zhang, Hui-Qing Gao, Lian-Mei Zhong, Di Lu
Brain damage, including blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction, neurological behavior deficit, cerebral infarction and inflammation, is commonly caused by ischemic-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Prevention of the above biological process defects is considered beneficial for patient recovery after I/R injury. This study was aimed to assess the neuroprotective effect of Gastrodin (GAS), an herbal agent, in experimentally induced cerebral ischemia. Sprague-Dawley adult rats were randomly divided into six groups: Sham-operated control group (Sham), middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) group, GAS (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) pretreatment + MCAO groups (GAS) and Nimodipine (NIM) + MCAO, namely, the NIM group...
February 8, 2019: Brain Research
Jun Shen, Bei-Bei Huo, Xu-Yun Hua, Mou-Xiong Zheng, Ye-Chen Lu, Jia-Jia Wu, Chun-Lei Shan, Jian-Guang Xu
The present study aimed to investigate cerebral metabolic changes in a neuropathic pain model following deafferentation. A total of 24 Sprague-Dawley rats were included for modeling of right brachial plexus avulsion (BPA) through the posterior approach. As nerve injury would cause central sensitization and facilitate pain sensitivity in other parts of the body, thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) of the intact forepaw was assessed to investigate the level of pain perception following BPA-induced neuropathic pain...
February 6, 2019: Brain Research
Cui Li, Yan Li, Ziqi Zhao, Yuanyuan Lv, Boya Gu, Li Zhao
Aerobic exercise lowers blood pressure in patients with hypertension, but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) plays a key role in the control of sympathetic outflow and cardiovascular tone. We examined whether chronic aerobic exercise altered synaptic transmission and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the PVN. In the present study, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were subjected to exercise training for 8 weeks, five times per week, with Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats as the cohort control...
February 5, 2019: Brain Research
Fernanda Gubert, Igor Bonacossa-Pereira, Ana B Decotelli, Michelle Furtado, Andreia Vasconcelos-Dos-Santos, Rosalia Mendez-Otero, Marcelo F Santiago
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a chronic degenerative disease that mainly affects motor neurons, leading to progressive paralysis and death. Recently, cell therapy has emerged as a therapeutic alternative for several neurological diseases, including ALS, and bone-marrow cells are one of the major cell sources. Considering the importance of pre-clinical trials to determine the best therapeutic protocol and the hope of translating this protocol to the clinical setting, we tested bone-marrow mononuclear cell (BMMC) therapy administered by different routes in the SOD1G93A model of ALS...
February 5, 2019: Brain Research
Natalia Lagunas, Marilena Marraudino, Miguel de Amorim, Helena Pinos, Paloma Collado, GianCarlo Panzica, Luis M Garcia-Segura, Daniela Grassi
The ovarian hormone 17β-estradiol is known to regulate the release, expression and immunoreactivity of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) in the supraoptic and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei of rodents. Previous studies have shown that estrogen receptor α is involved in the effects of chronic estradiol administration on arginine-vasopressin immunoreactivity in the female rat hypothalamus. In this study we have examined the effect of an acute administration of estradiol or specific agonists for estrogen receptors α, β and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 on the immunoreactivity of arginine-vasopressin in the hypothalamus of adult ovariectomized female rats...
February 4, 2019: Brain Research
Xin-Shang Wang, Jiao Yue, Li-Ning Hu, Zhen Tian, Liu-Kun Yang, Liang Lu, Ming-Gao Zhao, Shui-Bing Liu
Patients with irritable bowel syndrome suffer from chronic visceral pain, and in some of them, this is accompanied by anxiety comorbidity. Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 1 (CPEB1) mediates the cytoplasmic polyadenylation of mRNAs and facilitates their translation. Our previous studies have shown that CPEB1 knockdown in the amygdala exerts anxiolytic but not analgesic effects in a mouse model of inflammatory pain. However, the roles of CPEB1 in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in visceral pain modulation remain unclear...
February 4, 2019: Brain Research
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